Nursing antibiotics seem to be a little bit scary to take on, so we’ll do a basic hit list of five common classes that you’ll need to know for your exams and clinicals, and some commonly tested points about them!
Tetracyclines end in the suffix “-cycline.” Indications for these medications include things such as infectious diseases, acne and periodontal disease. An education point to remember here, is that they should not be given with milk, antacids or iron.
Now, moving on to side effects, important things to note are that tetracyclines cause bone deformities and teeth discoloration. For this reason, they shouldn’t be administered to children under the age of eight, or pregnant women.
Aminoglycosides end in the suffix “-mysin.” Although there are other drugs that end in “-mysin,” you can remember the aminoglycosides by the mnemonic GNATS; standing for gentamicin, neomycin, amikacin (the tricky outlier), tobramycin, and finally, streptomycin.
Most importantly, these drugs have the potential to have toxic side effects, such as nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity. If a patient who is taking an aminoglycoside is complaining of ringing of the ears, it should clue you in as a red flag. Because of the toxic side effects, it is important to measure peak and trough levels for patients taking these drugs.
Next batter up; macrolides. Macrolides are broad-spectrum antibiotics that end in “-thromysin.” To help you remember the macrolide antibiotics, just remember the acronym “ACE,” for azithromycin, clarithromycin and erythromycin. Easy enough, right? These drugs are commonly given for respiratory infections, and are often used as an alternative for patients with a penicillin allergy.
As a warning here: these drugs can cause dysrhythmias from QT segment prolongation, and they also have an association with C. difficile overgrowth (especially clarithromycin).
When these drugs are indicated for for an IV infusion, remember that the medication should be diluted and administered slowly to prevent the common problem of thrombophlebitis.
Moving on to number four: cephalosporins. Instead of having a common ending, the drugs in this class have a prefix, which is “cef-,” with the exception of cephalexin. The important exam point to remember here is that cephalosporins are the drugs that we give to when a patient is allergic to penicillin.
Educate the patient to especially avoid alcohol with these drugs, as their concurrent use can induce a state of alcohol intolerance.
Last but not least, our dear friends, the fluoroquinolones. These drugs end in “-floxacin.” Important teaching points: avoid taking these drugs with milk or antacids.
Notably, GI distress is a common side effect with these drugs. Additionally, another commonly tested fact here, although rare, is that fluoroquinolones can cause Achilles tendon rupture. With this in mind, if the patient complains of tendon pain, inflammation or swelling, the medication should be immediately discontinued.
So there you have a quick hit list of important nursing antibiotics and some little tidbits to know. Need an easier way to remember this information? Be sure to check out these and tons more inside Picmonic!
Good luck studying!
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