The femoral head is somewhat spherical and fitted medially, upward, and forward into the acetabulum with an articular cartilage covering. The fovea capitis femoris is a depression on the head to which the ligamentum capitis femoris attaches.
The femoral neck connects the head to the shaft of the femur at an angle of approximately 125 degrees. Fractures commonly occur at this site. The intertrochanteric line, to which the iliofemoral ligament attaches, separates the neck from the shaft.
This projects up from the neck-shaft junction. The gluteus medius and minimus, piriformis, and obturator internus muscles all insert here. The obturator externus tendon attaches to the trochanteric fossa on its medial aspect.
The lesser trochanter lies in the angle between the neck and the body of the femur. The inferior end of the intertrochanteric crest protrudes from here, and the iliopsoas tendon inserts here.
The gluteal tuberosity is the lateral ridge of the linea aspera, where the gluteus maximus inserts.
The pectineal line travels from the lesser trochanter to the medial lip of the linea aspera, providing an insertion for the pectineus muscle.
The linea aspera is a ridge on the shaft of the femur that has lateral and medial lips, allowing for attachments of various muscles as well as the three intermuscular septa.
Located on the distal end of the femur, the smaller lateral epicondyle provides an attachment site for the fibular collateral ligament of the knee. The larger medial epicondyle provides attachment for the tibial or medial collateral ligament (MCL).
Located on the distal end of the femur, the femoral condyles articulate with the tibial condyles below and form the knee joint together. The medial condyle is larger due to the greater weight bearing function medially. The lateral condyle is the insertion site for the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL); it is also subject to osteochondral fracture with patellar dislocation with high impact blunt trauma.
The adductor tubercle is a protrusion on the superior medial condyle that allows for insertion of the medial portion of the adductor magnus muscle.
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