Case-control studies are observational and draws inferences from factors which are not controlled by the researcher.
Case-control studies are retrospective, and look back at causative factors leading to a patient with disease now.
Patients with a disease (the case) are compared to otherwise similar patients without disease (the control).
By looking at inciting factors or causal attributes from the past, the researcher is asking, "What happened?," leading to this disease.
From a case-control study, researchers are able to calculate an odds ratio. It tells us how strongly the presence or absence of a property (green toxin exposure) is associated with another property (turning green).
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