Ampicillin is a beta lactam antibiotic in the aminopenicillin family. It can be used for gram positive organisms and limited gram negative bacteria. It can sometimes cause a rash if accidentally used for patients with mononucleosis.
This is a popular beta lactam antibiotic used for infections such as otitis media, skin infections, and strep throat. It is susceptible to degradation by beta lactamase producing bacteria, and is therefore combined with beta lactamase inhibitors like clavulanic acid and given orally.
Aminopenicillins are useful against shigella, which is a common cause of bacterial diarrhea worldwide. Transmission is via contaminated food and water, but also via direct person-to-person contact. Shigella has a high virulence; as few as 10-100 bacteria can cause disease because the organism can survive the stomach's acidic environment. Administration of antibiotics can prolong the duration of excretion of non-typhoidal salmonella.
Haemophilus influenzae is a gram negative coccobacilli that can cause several diseases including meningitis, pneumonia, otitis media, and epiglottitis.
Salmonella are classified within the Enterobacteriaceae family of the Gram negative bacilli. Salmonella is often classified into Salmonella typhi and nontyphoid Salmonella, mostly commonly Salmonella enteritidis. Salmonella enteritidis is a common cause of gastrointestinal disease in the US although antibiotics are preferably not given for this type of infection.
Listeria monocytogenes is a gram positive bacilli that causes the infection listeriosis, which occurs primarily in newborns, the elderly, and the immunocompromised. Individuals commonly have flu like symptoms and if the organism spreads to the nervous system, can cause meningitis. Pregnant women are especially susceptible to disease and can cause intrauterine or cervical infections that cause spontaneous abortion or granulomatosis infantiseptica. Listeria is also the third most common cause of meningitis in newborns as the infants are exposed to the bacteria during transvaginal delivery.
Enterococci are gram positive cocci that were previously classified as Group D streptococcus due to Lancefield group D classification. Important clinical infections caused by Enterococcus species include urinary tract infections and subacute endocarditis. An important feature of this genus is a high level of antibiotic resistance. Many enterococci are intrinsically resistant to beta lactam antibiotics and resistance to vancomycin (VRE) has been increasing in the last few decades.
A gram negative bacilli that is facultative anaerobic with swarming motility and urease presence. It cannot metabolize lactose on MacConkey agar. It is most commonly known for causing nosocomial infections. It can alkalinize urine and lead to struvite crystal formation in the urine and lead to large kidney stones. It can also cause other infections of the skin and lungs.
Escherichia coli, commonly abbreviated E. coli, is a gram negative bacilli often found as normal flora in the intestines. Most E. coli strains are harmless but pathogenic strains can cause disease including food poisoning, neonatal pneumonia and meningitis, septic shock, and UTIs.
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