Doxorubicin is used to treat solid tumors; meaning it is useful against cancers of the bladder, breast, stomach, ovaries, lungs, thyroids, and soft-tissue sarcomas.
This drug is used most commonly to treat leukemias and Hodgkin's lymphoma.
Doxorubicin increases free radical production in tumor cells, leading to cytotoxicity.
This medication inhibits biosynthesis of new cells, as it intercalates DNA. Once topoisomerase has split the DNA to be replicated, doxorubicin intercalates the DNA (gets in between the two DNA strands), preventing the double helix from being resealed. Thus, it stops the process of replication.
After the DNA double helix is split, Doxorubicin intercalates the two strands. This mechanical obstruction prevents the DNA double helix from resealing.
Doxorubicin is a cardiotoxic drug, and it can lead to congestive heart failure. Mechanisms for how this dose-dependant toxicity occurs include myocardial apoptosis, downregulation of contractile proteins and oxidative stress on myocardial cells.
Dexrazoxane is a cardioprotective agent used to protect the heart from chemotherapeutic drugs, like doxorubicin. It works by chelating iron ions, decreasing the amount of superoxide radicals that can harm the heart.
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