Hepatic adenomas are benign epithelial tumors of the liver and are also known as hepatocellular adenomas.
Hepatic adenoma is an epithelial tumor that can be found as a solitary lesion in the liver. It is mainly found in the right lobe.
Anabolic steroid use can induce the development of hepatic adenoma. These steroids are mainly used as a treatment for aplastic anemia, hereditary angioedema, and Fanconi anemia. Bodybuilders can abuse this substance to gain muscle mass.
Oral contraceptives can induce the development of hepatic adenoma, especially if it is consumed for more than five years. Discontinuation of this agent can cause spontaneous regression of the tumor.
One of the first things to treat hepatic adenoma is cessation of the the possible cause of the occurrence, such as oral contraceptives and anabolic steroids. This can shrink the size of the tumor.
Surgical resection is used to treat hepatic adenoma if the mass is >5 cm or the patient experiences persistent abdominal pain related to the mass. Transarterial embolization (TAE) – commonly used primarily to treat hepatic adenoma with complicated bleeding. It can also be indicated in elective procedures for large (>5 cm) mass or symptomatic patients.
Hepatic adenoma can regress spontaneously after discontinuing oral contraceptives, especially if the mass size is ≤5 cm.
As one complication of hepatic adenoma, rupture can occur due to the mass's lack of a fibrous capsule and the presence of an arterial system that supplies hepatic sinusoids. As a result, intraperitoneal bleeding can occur—the risk increases in pregnancy and with a larger mass.
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