Located medially, the tibia is the main weight-bearing bone of the lower leg; it forms what is known as the “shin,” and can be easily palpated along the anterior portion of the leg.
This is one of the most important weight-bearing points of the body, located at the proximal end of the tibia.The intercondylar eminence, part of the plateau, serves as an attachment point for the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments, as well as the medial and lateral menisci.
The condyles are located proximally and articulate with the medial and lateral condyles of the femur to form the knee joint.
A protrusion of the proximal anterior tibia, the tuberosity provides insertion for the patellar ligament. 1-2 cm medial to the tibial tuberosity also serves as the preferred site to establish intraosseous (IO) access during emergency situations in which IV access is not possible.
A lateral tubercle on the proximal tibia, it provides insertion for the iliotibial tract, also known as the IT band.
The fibular notch is a depression on the distal tibia joining with the fibula to form the inferior tibiofibular articulation.
The medial malleolus is a protrusion of the distal tibia, which contains the malleolar groove to which the tibialis posterior and flexor digitorum longus tendons attach. A separate groove, posterolateral to the malleolar groove, serves as an attachment point for the flexor hallucis longus tendon and deltoid ligament.
This bone’s main purpose is to serve as a site for muscle attachments, as it has little to no weight-bearing role. In fact, the fibula is commonly used as a harvest site for bone grafts, because segmental removal does not affect function in the realm of normal activity.
Located at the proximal fibula, the head provides an attachment site for the fibular (lateral) collateral ligament of the knee.
Joins with the trochlea of the talus and is inferior and posterior to the medial malleolus. The anterior talofibular, posterior talofibular and calcaneofibular ligaments all attach here. The peroneus longus and brevis tendons can be found in its sulcus.
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