The midgut begins at the distal duodenum, specifically after the ampulla of Vater.
The jejunum is derived from the midgut. The jejunum begins after the suspensory ligament (ligament of Treitz) and seamlessly transitions into the ileum.
The ileum is the last portion of the small bowel. It leads into the ceum and colon.
The appendix is a small structure that buds off the cecum in most cases. It is a derivative structure of the midgut.
The ascending colon, including the cecum, is derived from the embryological midgut.
The proximal 2/3 of the transverse colon including the hepatic flexure is derived from the midgut. After this point, the hindgut gives rise to the remaining large intestine and rectum.
The superior mesenteric artery (SMA) is the primary blood supply to the midgut. This structure serves as the node around which the whole midgut rotates and herniates during embryological development.
The vagus nerve (CN X) is the primary parasympathetic input to the midgut.
The lesser splanchnic nerve provides the primary sympathetic input to the midgut via the superior mesenteric plexus.
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