Beat The Heat SAVE 25% NOW
Medicine (MD/DO)
Anatomy & Embryology
Embryogenesis & Fetal Development
Patent Ductus Arteriosus

Master Patent Ductus Arteriosus with Picmonic for Medicine

With Picmonic, facts become pictures. We've taken what the science shows - image mnemonics work - but we've boosted the effectiveness by building and associating memorable characters, interesting audio stories, and built-in quizzing.

Patent Ductus Arteriosus

Recommended Picmonics

picmonic thumbnail
Fetal Circulation
picmonic thumbnail
Postnatal Circulation
picmonic thumbnail
Cleft Lip or Palate Interventions
picmonic thumbnail
Persistent Truncus Arteriosus

Patent Ductus Arteriosus

Duck Connecting the Pulmonary Artery and Aorta
Patent ductus arteriosus is a congenital heart disorder in which a neonate’s ductus arteriosus fails to close after birth. The ductus arteriosus is a physiologic fetal blood vessel that connects the pulmonary artery to the aortic arch, allowing blood from the right ventricle to bypass the non-functioning lungs. At birth, the ductus arteriosus closes to become the ligamentum arteriosum. Failure of this blood vessel to close results in the condition patent ductus arteriosus, which generates a left-to-right shunt. The blood that flows through this duct creates a continuous machine like murmur that is loudest at the S2 heart sound. Common causes include congenital rubella or prematurity, and if left uncorrected, can lead to pulmonary hypertension and Eisenmenger syndrome.
Graphic representation of Continuous-murmur

The blood flow through the patent ductus arteriosus creates a continuous murmur that exists in both systole and diastole.

Machine like murmur
Machine-like Merman

This murmur is classically described as having a machine-like quality due to continuous clicking noises. Important to note that while the machine-like murmur is often the hallmark sign, a systolic ejection murmur may also be heard.

Often Due to Congenital Rubella
Red-bell torch

Patent ductus arteriosus is a common outcome of congenital Rubella infection close to delivery. However, the frequency of PDA caused by congenital Rubella has significantly decreased due to immunization.


In premature infants, the patent ductus arteriosus closes later than it would in term babies, possibly related to the relative immaturity of the lungs.


Take the Patent Ductus Arteriosus Quiz

Picmonic's rapid review multiple-choice quiz allows you to assess your knowledge.

It's worth every penny

Our Story Mnemonics Increase Mastery and Retention

Memorize facts with phonetic mnemonics

Unforgettable characters with concise but impactful videos (2-4 min each)

Memorize facts with phonetic mnemonics

Ace Your Medicine (MD/DO) Classes & Exams with Picmonic:

Over 1,910,000 students use Picmonic’s picture mnemonics to improve knowledge, retention, and exam performance.

Choose the #1 Medicine (MD/DO) student study app.

Picmonic for Medicine (MD/DO) covers information that is relevant to your entire Medicine (MD/DO) education. Whether you’re studying for your classes or getting ready to conquer the USMLE Step 1, USMLE Step 2 CK, COMLEX Level 1, or COMLEX Level 2, we’re here to help.

Works better than traditional Medicine (MD/DO) flashcards.

Research shows that students who use Picmonic see a 331% improvement in memory retention and a 50% improvement in test scores.