Reinforcement is defined by the effect that it has on behavior, it increases or strengthens the response; this can happen in 2 ways, namely by positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement. In positive reinforcement target behavior is followed by the desired reward. In negative reinforcement target behavior is followed by the removal of the aversive stimulus. In both cases the likelihood of the behavior happening in the future increases.
Punishment in operant conditioning is used to refer to any change that occurs after a behavior that reduces the likelihood that behavior will occur again in the future. In positive punishment repeated application of aversive stimulus takes place, while in negative punishment desired reward is removed.
Disappearance of a previously learned behavior when the behavior is not reinforced is known as extinction. This can occur in operant or classical conditioning.
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