One of the key parts of the juxtaglomerular apparatus is the collection of cells known as juxtaglomerular cells, which are modified smooth muscle cells located in the walls of the afferent arterioles.
Mesangial cells are located at the junction between the afferent and efferent arterioles and have a contractile function, which enables them to alter the vessel diameter and regulate GFR.
Macula densa cells are epithelial cells located in the distal convoluted tubule that act as sensors of juxtaglomerular apparatus. If decreased NaCl is detected in the tubular fluid, juxtaglomerular cells release renin.
Macula densa cells of juxtaglomerular apparatus are located in the distal convoluted tubule.
Angiotensinogen is a protein that is the precursor of all angiotensin peptides. It is a non-inhibitory member of the serpin family of proteinase inhibitors that is also known as a renin substrate.
Angiotensinogen is secreted from the liver.
Renin (angiotensinogenase) is a protease enzyme that plays a crucial role in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system.
Renin is secreted from juxtaglomerular cells.
Renin catalyzes the conversion of angiotensinogen into angiotensin I.
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is an enzyme located on the surfaces of endothelial cells of pulmonary capillaries that converts the hormone angiotensin I into the active vasoconstrictor angiotensin II.
While angiotensin-converting enzyme is expressed in many tissues (e.g., kidneys, testes), it is particularly abundant in endothelial cells of pulmonary capillaries where it participates in the synthesis of angiotensin II.
Angiotensin-converting enzyme catalyzes the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II.
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