Fluphenazine is a high potency antipsychotic medication used to treat psychosis and schizophrenia. It has a long half life of 15-30 hours.
Trifluoperazine is a high potency antipsychotic medication used in the treatment of schizophrenia and anxiety.
Haloperidol is a medication used to treat schizophrenia, acute psychosis and delirium. This drug has many serious side effects and is very potent. It is a derivative of butyrophenone, which were the original antipsychotics, developed in the 1950s.
Extrapyramidal symptoms are movement disorders related to administration of medications with anti-dopaminergic activity, including antipsychotics (especially high potency ones), as well as other medications, for example metoclopramide (an antiemetic). The extrapyramidal side effects of dystonia, torticollis, akathisia, and Parkinsonism are seen more often in high potency antipsychotics.
Short term symptoms such as dystonia and torticollis can occur within hours to days after treatment.
Dystonia is described as sustained muscle contraction, which can present as repetitive twitching and abnormal posture. This is an acute extrapyramidal symptom.
Patients with torticollis display an asymmetric neck position and have a fixed tilt of the head. Torticollis may be present in patients suffering from an acute extrapyramidal reaction after short term treatment with high potency antipsychotics.
Long term treatment with high potency antipsychotics can lead to parkinsonism and tardive dyskinesia.
Tardive dyskinesia is described as repetitive, involuntary movements typically of the mouth or face but potentially of the trunk or extremities as well. Patients often have characteristic lip-smacking or hand movements. These symptoms typically occur months into high potency antipsychotic treatment.
Parkinson's-like symptoms occur after weeks of treatment with high potency antipsychotics. Patients with this side effect display muscle stiffness, pill-rolling tremor and decreased movement.
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