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Medicine (MD/DO)
Skin Cancer
Melanoma Diagnosis

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Melanoma Diagnosis

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Melanoma Diagnosis

Melon-gnome Diagnosing
Early signs of melanoma are described by the ABCDE mnemonic: Asymmetry, Border, Color, Diameter and Evolution over time. These tumors are can be evaluated with S-100 and LDH to monitor progression and prognosis. Treatment includes wide local excision and adjuvant therapy.
ABCDE Mnemonic
ABCDE Checklist

Early signs of melanoma are described by the ABCDE mnemonic: Asymmetry, Border, Color, Diameter and Evolution over time.

Asymmetrical Melon

A lesion which is asymmetric may be a sign of melanoma.

Border irregularity
Irregular B-Border

Borders which are irregular can also be hints that a lesion may be melanoma.

Color variation
Different Colored Melon

Color variability in lesions may increase suspicion of melanoma.

Diameter > 6mm
Diameter > 6mm

Melanoma often shows a diameter greater than 6mm.

Evolution over time
Evolved Melon

Melanoma lesions evolve over time and change shape, color and border rapidly.

S-100 Tumor Marker
S100 Sign

S-100 protein family are useful as markers for certain tumors and epidermal differentiation. It can be found in melanomas, and used to track melanocyte differentiation.

LDH (Lactate Dehydrogenase) Screens for Metastasis
Lake-dehydrator Screen Metastasis Mitt

Lactate deyhdrogenase (LDH) levels are proven to be an accurate predictor of prognosis and response to some treatments.

Wide Local Excision
Wide-Cutting Exorcist

Primary treatment for melanomas is excision with wide margins. This is particularly helpful when these melanomas are in their radial growth phase.

Adjuvant Therapy

Adjuvant therapy with BRAF kinase inhibitors is helpful in treating metastatic or unresectable melanomas.


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