Early signs of melanoma are described by the ABCDE mnemonic: Asymmetry, Border, Color, Diameter and Evolution over time.
A lesion which is asymmetric may be a sign of melanoma.
Borders which are irregular can also be hints that a lesion may be melanoma.
Color variability in lesions may increase suspicion of melanoma.
Melanoma often shows a diameter greater than 6mm.
Melanoma lesions evolve over time and change shape, color and border rapidly.
S-100 protein family are useful as markers for certain tumors and epidermal differentiation. It can be found in melanomas, and used to track melanocyte differentiation.
Lactate deyhdrogenase (LDH) levels are proven to be an accurate predictor of prognosis and response to some treatments.
Primary treatment for melanomas is excision with wide margins. This is particularly helpful when these melanomas are in their radial growth phase.
Adjuvant therapy with BRAF kinase inhibitors is helpful in treating metastatic or unresectable melanomas.
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