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Prostate Adenocarcinoma Characteristics and Presentation

Prostate-plum Add (+) car-gnome
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Prostate adenocarcinoma is one of the most common cancers in men. A screening test, prostate specific antigen, is recommended in high-risk patients. The peripheral zone of the prostate is the most common area affected. African-American and elderly men have an increased risk of developing prostate adenocarcinoma. Patients are usually asymptomatic but can develop terminal hematuria, urinary retention or incontinence, and lower back pain.
10 KEY FACTS
CHARACTERISTICS
Most Common Cancer in Men
#1 Foam-finger Tumor-guy with Men

Prostate adenocarcinoma is the most common cancer in men in the United States. It is also the second leading cause of cancer mortality after lung cancer.

Screening Test if Suspicious
Screen-door

Screening of prostate adenocarcinoma is highly recommended in men above 50 years old and as early as 40 years old for higher-risk patients. High-risk patients include African-Americans, family history of prostate cancer, or BRCA1/2 mutations. Prostate-specific Antigen (PSA) is the most suitable study for screening.

Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA)
Prostate-plum Ant-gem

Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) represents prostatic epithelium. It is used as a screening test and marker for prostate adenocarcinoma recurrence. It is important to exclude other possible causes of increased PSA because it can also be elevated in prostatitis and benign prostate hyperplasia. Those with a PSA above 7 ng/mL should be referred to a urologist. The test should be retaken several weeks later.

Peripheral Zone
Peripheral Zone

Prostate adenocarcinoma is most commonly (70%) found in the prostate's posterior lobe/peripheral zone. 15-20% are found in the central zone and 10-15% are found in the transitional zone.

RISK FACTORS
African-American
African American

Prostate adenocarcinoma is seen more commonly in African-Americans.

Advanced Age
Elderly

The risk of prostate adenocarcinoma increases significantly after 50 years of age. Prostate cancer can be seen in 6 out of 10 men older than 65.

PRESENTATION
Usually Asymptomatic
Thumbs-up

Patients with prostate adenocarcinoma can be asymptomatic in the early stage of the disease.

Terminal Hematuria
Terminal Red-urinal

Blood that presents at the end of urination is called terminal hematuria. This symptom usually indicates a problem in the bladder or prostate and can be seen in advanced stages of prostate adenocarcinoma. The underlying disorder can be diagnosed with the help of cystoscopy and urine culture.

Urinary Retention or Incontinence
Urine Retained in bladder and Urine In-continents

Prostate adenocarcinoma patients can experience urinary retention or incontinence due to mass effect. Symptoms include urgency, terminal dribbling, and hesitancy. Benign prostate hyperplasia typically presents with more of these urinary symptoms due to periurethral enlargement.

Lower Back Pain
Lower Back Pain-bolts

Advanced prostate adenocarcinoma can lead to metastases which spread via Batson's venous plexus. These bone metastasis to the spine can result in low back pain in patients. Because patients are usually asymptomatic, low back pain is one of the symptoms patients can complain about in the initial diagnosis.

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