Teratoma comprises 90% of ovarian germ cell tumors and may contain tissue from all three germ layers.
A dermoid cyst, or mature teratoma, is the most common ovarian germ cell tumor and is most often benign. This type of cystic growth is filled with various tissue types, including fat, teeth, hair, bone, and thyroid tissue. Malignancy rarely occurs and is sporadically reported, and usually presents in the form of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) arising from a mature cystic teratoma of the ovary.
Immature teratomas are composed of histologically immature tissue and are aggressively malignant. These tumors are comprised of three germ layers and may resemble fetal tissue. Malignancy usually arises from neuroectodermal tissue.
A rare type of teratoma, struma ovarii is composed mainly of thyroid tissue and is usually benign.
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