Master VIPoma with Picmonic for Medicine

With Picmonic, facts become pictures. We've taken what the science shows - image mnemonics work - but we've boosted the effectiveness by building and associating memorable characters, interesting audio stories, and built-in quizzing.

VIPoma

VIP-gnome
Carlos Velez
VIPomas are rare functioning neuroendocrine tumors. The majority arises as a non-α, non-β islet cell pancreatic tumor that has an excessive, unregulated secretion of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP). VIP is a neuropeptide that vasodilates and also regulates smooth muscle activity, epithelial cell secretion, and blood flow in the gastrointestinal tract. Clinical features include GI distress, watery diarrhea that persists with fasting, hypokalemia and achlorhydria. Management consists of giving somatostatin analogs (octreotide) to control the diarrhea and surgical resection if the tumor has not spread to other organs. VIPomas tend to occur as isolated tumors, but may occur in 5% of patients as part of the multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 1.
9 KEY FACTS
CHARACTERISTICS
Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumor
Pancreas with Neuron-indy-car and Tumor-guy

VIPomas are rare functioning neuroendocrine tumors and the majority arise as a non-α, non-β islet cell pancreatic tumor that have an excessive, unregulated secretion of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP).

Secretes Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide (VIP)
Secret-agent in VIP-area

VIP is a polypeptide that binds to receptors on intestinal epithelial cells, activating the production of adenylate cyclase and cAMP. VIP also induces vasodilation, inhibits gastric acid secretion, bone resorption, and enhanced glycogenolysis, causing flushing, hypochlorhydria, hypercalcemia, and hyperglycemia.

CLINICAL FEATURES
GI Distress
GI with Flare-gun

Patients with VIPoma can develop symptoms of GI distress, such as abdominal cramping, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea.

Watery Diarrhea
Toilet with Water-spilling out

VIPoma is characterized by watery diarrhea that persists with fasting. Stools are abundant (700-3000 mL/day), tea-colored and odorless. Patients with VIPomas develop this watery diarrhea due to the binding of VIP to receptors on intestinal epithelial cells, which activates the production of adenylate cyclase and cAMP, leading to a net fluid and electrolyte secretion into the lumen.

Hypokalemia
Hippo-banana

Hypokalemia is a serum potassium level of < 3.5 mEq/L (3.5 mmol/L). It is a potentially life-threatening imbalance. Hypokalemia seen in patients with VIPoma is due to the massive fecal loss of potassium.

Achlorhydria
Acorn-hydra

Achlorhydria is the absence of hydrochloric acid in gastric secretions. Patients with VIPomas develop achlorhydria due to the inhibition of gastrin secretion by VIP.

MANAGEMENT
Octreotide
Octo-tree-ride

Treatment for VIPoma begins with IV fluid replacement and correction of electrolyte abnormalities. After this, somatostatin analogs, such as octreotide, are given to inhibit the secretion of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and control the diarrhea in these patients.

Surgical Resection
Surgeon

Surgical resection of the tumor can cure the patient if it has not spread to other organs. However, in one third to one half of patients with VIPoma, the tumor has spread by the time of diagnosis and cannot be cured.

ASSOCIATIONS
Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 (MEN 1)
Man with (1) Wand

VIPomas tend to occur as isolated tumors, but may occur in 5% of patients as part of the multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 1 (MEN1) and are associated with parathyroid and pituitary tumors, gastrinoma, and other tumors.

Unlock all 9 facts & definitions with Picmonic Free!

Take the VIPoma Quiz

Picmonic's rapid review multiple-choice quiz allows you to assess your knowledge.

It's worth every penny

Our Story Mnemonics Increase Mastery and Retention

Memorize facts with phonetic mnemonics

Unforgettable characters with concise but impactful videos (2-4 min each)

Ace Your Medicine (MD/DO) Classes & Exams with Picmonic:

Over 1,120,000 students use Picmonic’s picture mnemonics to improve knowledge, retention, and exam performance.

Choose the #1 Medicine (MD/DO) student study app.

Picmonic for Medicine (MD/DO) covers information that is relevant to your entire Medicine (MD/DO) education. Whether you’re studying for your classes or getting ready to conquer the USMLE Step 1, USMLE Step 2 CK, COMLEX Level 1, or COMLEX Level 2, we’re here to help.

Works better than traditional Medicine (MD/DO) flashcards.

Research shows that students who use Picmonic see a 331% improvement in memory retention and a 50% improvement in test scores.