Nephritic syndrome is characterized by inflammation of the glomeruli and is a set of symptoms which include hematuria, hypertension, oliguria, and less than 3.5 grams per day of proteinuria. Patients with nephritic syndrome also commonly present with red cell casts in the urine and azotemia. Nephritic syndrome can be caused by several diseases including Berger's disease, poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis and rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis.
IgA nephropathy is an alternative name for Berger's disease and draws from the increased synthesis of immunoglobulin A involved in the pathogenesis.
Berger's disease is a nephritic kidney disease, also known as IgA glomerulopathy, that is characterized by the presence of IgA deposits in the mesangium of the kidneys, which can be detected via immunofluorescence microscopy and light microscopy.
In patients with IgA nephropathy, levels of plasma IgA are increased and there is prominent deposition of IgA immune complexes in the mesangium.
Berger's disease is a common cause of recurrent gross or microscopic hematuria and is the most common cause of nephritic syndrome in the developed world.
Henoch–Schönlein purpura (HSP) is a systemic vasculitis characterized by deposition of IgA immune complexes in skin and other organs including joints, GI tract, and kidney. The renal manifestations are nephritic and resemble Berger's disease.
Berger's disease commonly presents as gross hematuria after an upper respiratory infection or less commonly an acute gastroenteritis.
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