Bronchiectasis is classified as an obstructive lung disease, where blocked air flow traps air in the lungs. This results in V/Q mismatch, increased residual volume (RV) and decreased FEV1/FVC ratio.
Recurrent pulmonary infections or bronchial obstruction can lead to the destruction of bronchial elastic tissue and muscle.
Chronic infection and bronchial tissue damage may permanently dilate the airways and lead to collapse of the bronchioles.
Congenital diseases like Kartagener's syndrome, or acquired causes like smoking may cause impaired ciliary function. Ciliary defects are often associated with chronic airway infections.
A dynein arm defect results in immotile cilia, which is associated with male infertility (immotile sperm), decreased female fertility and situs inversus. In addition to bronchiectasis, inability to expel bacteria and particles can lead to recurrent sinusitis.
Cystic fibrosis impairs clearance of mucus. Mucus plaques can obstruct airways and lead to infections characteristic of bronchiectasis.
An immune response to the airway-colonizing Aspergillus fungus can lead to allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA). ABPA is a common predisposition for bronchiectasis.
Hemoptysis is the coughing up of blood or blood-containing sputum from the lungs, bronchi, trachea or larynx. In addition to bronchiectasis, hemoptysis is a symptom of infection (tuberculosis), bronchitis, and cancer.
Chronic cough with increased purulent sputum production is a common symptom. Hemoptysis, the production of blood-containing sputum, may also occur.
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