Episodes of rosacea are frequently provoked by lifestyle factors such as alcohol consumption, heat and UV exposure, and emotional extremes.
Central facial flushing and telangiectasias are the most common manifestations of rosacea.
Proper sun protection is one of the first line recommendations for prevention of rosacea, especially for preventing skin flushing and telangiectasias.
Topical brimonidine, an alpha-2 agonist, may be used for treatment of rosacea. Since facial flushing may be a result of dysfunction of superficial blood vessels, brimonidine, a vasoconstrictor, may act by mitigating this dysfunction and reducing excessive blood flow to the face.
Papules and pustules localized to the central face are common in rosacea.
Topical metronidazole is commonly used for the papulopustular manifestations of rosacea. Since the exact mechanism underlying rosacea is undefined, the exact mechanism by which metronidazole is useful is not 100% certain. However it is possible that metronidazole helps kill certain skin microbiota which may contribute to inflammation.
If severe and left untreated, the chronic inflammation from rosacea can lead to excessive connective tissue outgrowth, leading to rhinophyma.
Laser ablation has been used for treatment of rhinophymatous skin changes.
Avoiding triggers is advised for prevention of any and all manifestations of rosacea.
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