Rubor is redness. It is mediated by prostaglandins, histamine, bradykinin, and nitric oxide. It is a manifestation of relaxation of the arteriolar smooth muscle.
Calor is warmth. It results from vasodilation due to vasoactive mediators, including prostaglandins, bradykinin, histamine, and nitric oxide.
Tumor is swelling that results from fluid accumulation in the interstitium. This is caused by increased vascular permeability. Mediators from the endothelium and immune cells that contribute to this process include histamine, serotonin, and leukotrienes.
Dolor is pain that results from the stimulation of free nerve endings. PGE2, bradykinin, and histamine play a role in this process. Additionally, prolonged stimulation of free nerve endings can cause sensitization of ion channels to occur.
Functio laesa is the loss of function of an organ that results from a combination of other cardinal signs of inflammation.
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