Osteomas are benign, slow-growing tumors composed mainly of osteoid tissue.
Osteomas are mainly located on and arise from the cortex of bones in the face.
Osteomas contain both compact and trabecular bone components.
The main locations of osteomas are the skull and paranasal sinuses.
Symptoms depend on the location of the lesion in question. If it is found on the paranasal sinus, it can cause pressure headaches, congestion, sinusitis, and other obstruction-related symptoms.
One association of osteomas is Gardener syndrome. Gardener syndrome is an autosomal dominant form of polyposis and presents with multiple osteomas, colon polyps, supernumerary teeth, and hypertrophied retinal pigment epithelium.
In Gardner syndrome, osteomas can be seen in the mandible.
Another association is tuberous sclerosis, in which case the patient presents with multiple osteomas.
In imaging studies, patients with osteomas display a lesion with a density identical to that of the cortex, primarily in the paranasal sinuses and skull.
Given the benign nature of osteomas and the fact that they are not locally aggressive, treatment is based mainly on observation. Lesions can be surgically removed if associated symptoms are problematic.
There have been no reports of malignant transformation of osteomas.
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