Medicine (MD/DO)
Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine by TrueLearn
Treatment Modalities
Fascial Distortion Model

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Fascial Distortion Model

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Fascial Distortion Model

Fascial-fashion Distortion Model
The Fascial Distortion Model is a method that osteopathic physicians use to pinpoint specific sources of injury based on the location where a patient describes their symptoms. The model focuses on six different pathological alterations to the fascial network, or the connective tissue that surrounds muscles, joints, tendons, ligaments, and organs of the body. This network is a flexible fibrous web that can fold, winkle, and distort into various formations. Using the FDM model, physicians can isolate specific fascial distortions, reverse the injury, and ultimately eliminate pain. The six fascial distortions include Trigger Bands, Continuum Distortions, Cylindrical Distortions, Herniated Trigger Points, Folding Distortions, and Tectonic Fixations. Trigger bands are the most common distortions and are identified by the wrinkling pattern of linear fascia secondary to tugging and pulling along the tissue path. This can result from repetitive injuries such as plantar fasciitis. Continuum Distortions are located at the transitional point between a bone and the nearby fascia, ligaments, and tendons. Patients typically report sharp pinpoint pain of which they only point to but do not push upon, such as that seen in an ankle sprain. Cylindrical Distortions are located in non-jointed areas and result from simultaneous twisting and rotational forces over loops of fascia. These distortions develop whacky symptoms like tingling, numbness, and migratory non-localized pain that's constantly changing locations such as that seen post-surgically. Herniated Trigger Points are from breakout tissue that ruptures through the fascial plane resulting in deep, achy pain that a patient will push on to alleviate their symptoms. A Folding Distortion, similar to a crumpled car road map, is a result of fascia constantly being incorrectly pulled and pushed over their original structure. Lastly, Tectonic Fixations is due to the inability of the fascia to glide over one another resulting in a decreased range of motion. Patients typically describe this as joint stiffness. Identifying these distortions and treating the surrounding fascia is the key to understanding the Fascial Distortion Model.
Anatomical Approach to Somatic Complaints
Sumo-tick Complaining

The FDM model is a structural way of thinking that interprets the body’s function with a specific emphasis on the fascial network. By addressing each of the six distinctive pathological alterations of the body’s fascial layers, the FDM model works by utilizing an anatomical approach to identify various underlying etiologies based on the locations of symptoms and how they can impact the musculoskeletal system. Some common acute injuries treated with this model include sprained ankles, heel spurs, tendonitis, and plantar fasciitis.

Tired Children Hate Folding Clothes Tonight
Tired Children Hating Folding Clothes Tonight

To remember the six distortions, think of the mnemonic "Tired Children Hate Folding Clothes Tonight." The first letter of each word will help you recall trigger bands, cylindrical distortions, herniated trigger points, folding distortions, continuum distortions, and tectonic fixations.

Trigger Bands
Trigger on Band

Trigger Bands are the most common fascial distortion and are caused by the wrinkling of linear-arranged fascia or from tugging along the path of the fascial band. This distortion is typically due to repetitive injuries and results in burning and pulling pain.

Cylindrical Distortions

Cylindrical Distortions are loops of fascia that arise in non-jointed areas from simultaneous twisting and rotational forces. These result in wacky symptoms, including tingling, numbness, and migratory pain that constantly changes location.

Herniated Trigger Points
Hermit-crab Trigger Point

Herniated Trigger Points are pathological herniations of tissue that break between a fascial plane and result in deep, achy, localized, symptomatic pain.

Folding Distortions
Folded Clothes

Folding Distortions result when the fascia around a joint is constantly pulled and pushed, resulting in a decreased ability of the fascia to mold and preserve its original form. This distortion is similar to the repetitive folding and unfolding of a car road map that fails to revert to its original orientation.

Continuum Distortions

Continuum Distortions arise at the transition point between bone and its neighboring fascia, ligaments, or tendons and occur when they lose their capacity to respond to external stimuli. This distortion results in pain localized to one single spot and can result in joint sprains or even bone spur formation.

Tectonic Fixations

Tectonic Fixations are physiological rearrangements of overlapping fascia that cause it to become stiff and fixated to one location. This distortion results in decreased glide and range of motion.


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