Nephritic syndrome is characterized by inflammation of the glomeruli and is a set of symptoms which include hematuria, hypertension, oliguria, and less than 3.5grams per day of proteinuria. Patients with nephritic syndrome also commonly present with red cell casts in the urine and azotemia. Nephritic syndrome can be caused by several diseases including Berger's disease, poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis and rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis.
Children are the typical population which are diagnosed with acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis, and additionally, they have the best prognosis. Getting the disease when older confers a worse prognosis.
Edema of the extremities and face is caused by protein loss and can be the initial signs of the illness.
One of the first clinical symptoms seen in post streptococcal glomerulonephritis is cola-colored urine. This is also described as dark, or tea-colored urine, and arises from hemolysis of red blood cells that have penetrated the glomerular basement membrane and have passed into the tubular system
Follows group A strep infection of skin or pharynx. This differs from rheumatic heart disease which only follows strep throat infection.
In poststreptococal glomerulonephritis, the glomeruli are typically enlarged and hypercellular, caused by infiltration by neutrophils and monocytes and proliferation of endothelial and mesangial cells.
In immunofluorescence microscopy, granular deposits of IgG, IgM, and C3 in the mesangium and glomerular basement membrane is common.
On immunofluorescence, there are characteristic electron dense deposits on the epithelial side of the membrane, commonly described as having a lumpy bumpy appearance. The lumpy bumpy appearance is thought to be caused by antigen-antibody complexes at the epithelial surface.
On electron microscopy, there are characteristic electron dense deposits on the epithelial side of the membrane, commonly described as having a lumpy bumpy appearance. The lumpy bumpy appearance is thought to be caused by antigen-antibody complexes at the epithelial surface.
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