This virus contains a viral envelope that covers its protein capsids. Viral envelopes are often used to help viruses enter host cells.
This is an RNA virus, meaning its genetic code consists of ribonucleic acid, as opposed to deoxyribonucleic acid.
This virus has a helical shape as opposed to an icosahedral shape.
Negative-sense (3' to 5') viral RNA genome is complementary to viral mRNA. Therefore, the genome must be converted to positive-sense RNA by an RNA polymerase before translation can occur. Viruses with negative-sense genomes must carry an RNA polymerase inside the virion in order to replicate.
Paramyxoviruses contain a nonsegmented genome, in contrast to orthomyxoviruses, which have a genome that consists of eight segments.
Paramyxoviruses contain fusion proteins that project from the surface of the envelope. This protein mediates cell entry by inducing fusion between the viral envelope and the cell membrane. Fusion of cells can lead to multinucleated cells that are characteristic of paramyxovirus infections.
Measles, or rubeola, is a syndrome caused by the measles virus, which is a member of the paramyxovirus family. Symptoms include fever, cough, coryza, conjunctivitis and a generalized rash.
Mumps is caused by a paramyxovirus and typically causes painful swelling of the parotid glands. The virus can also cause painful testicular swelling and aseptic meningitis.
Respiratory syncytial virus is in the paramyxovirus family and is the major cause of bronchiolitis in infants and children. Bronchiolitis is inflammation of the bronchioles that usually occurs in children less than two years old. Infants with bronchiolitis typically present with coughing, wheezing and shortness of breath.
Parainfluenza viruses are in the paramyxovirus family. Parainfluenza viruses are a common cause of respiratory tract disease in children and infants and can cause pneumonia, bronchitis and croup in children.
Respiratory syncytial virus is in the paramyxovirus family and is the major cause of bronchiolitis in infants and children. RSV can be treated with palivizumab, a monoclonal antibody which binds to virions and prevents their invasion of host cells.
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