Bacillus anthracis is a gram-positive bacteria.
This bacterium is spore-forming and can survive harsh conditions. It can remain inactive for many years, but if it comes into a favorable environment, it begins to grow again.
Bacillus anthracis is the only bacterium with a polypeptide capsule. This is composed of D-glutamate.
Protective antigen serves as the "trojan horse," which carries anthrax's other toxins through the host's plasma membrane, into the cytosol.
Lethal factor is named for its effects. It causes lethal effects in the cell it invades.
This bacillus anthracis toxin is responsible for causing edema, hence its name. This toxin is an inherent adenylate cyclase, leading to a disruption in water homeostasis.
Edema factor is an adenylate cyclase that greatly increases the level of cAMP in the cell. This increase in cAMP upsets water homeostasis, severely throws the intracellular signaling pathways off balance, and impairs macrophage function, allowing the bacteria to further evade the immune system.
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