This organism stains gram-negative due to its relatively thin peptidoglycan layer in the cell wall.
This bacteria is rod, or bacillus, shaped.
This organism is motile and utilizes flagella. This promotes the bacterial motility and chemotaxis required for colonization of the intestinal tract.
This organism is a curved bacillus, commonly described as comma or S-shaped.
This organism has a characteristic spiral or corkscrew appearance. This appearance helps to distinguish C. jejuni from other gram-negative rods.
An oxidase test is used to determine if bacteria produce an intracellular oxidase enzyme. These oxidases catalyze the oxidation of cytochrome c, and their presence is used to help differentiate bacteria. Campylobacter are oxidase positive organisms, and produce a deep purple-blue color on lab testing.
Campylobacter jejuni is known to grow well at 42 degrees Celsius, which helps to differentiate this bacteria from other gram-negative rods that cannot tolerate this level of heat.
Campylobacter jejuni can be contracted from undercooked meat, or through food cross-contaminated with raw meat.
This organism can be contracted from unpasteurized milk.
Campylobacter jejuni can be contracted by fecal-oral contamination from animals, like dogs and cats, with diarrhea. Thus, it is important to wash hands when in close contact with house pets with diarrhea.
In the GI tract, the organism produces an inflammatory response, leading to bloody diarrhea associated with cramping and pain.
Guillain-Barre syndrome is an acute disorder of the peripheral nervous system, characterized by an ascending paralysis that begins in the hands, or feet, and migrates towards the trunk. If the respiratory muscles are affected, it can cause life-threatening complications. Campylobacter is known to be a trigger for Guillain-Barre syndrome.
This particular reactive arthritis is an autoimmune condition that typically develops after an infectious process. The clinical pattern consists of inflammation of the joints, inflammation of the eyes, and urethritis. Campylobacter jejuni has been linked to reactive arthritis. A common mnemonic used to recall the presenting symptoms is “can't see, can't pee, can't climb a tree.”
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