Nonspecific signs common to many torch infections include hepatosplenomegaly, jaundice and thrombocytopenia.
Intrauterine growth retardation is defined as poor growth of a fetus while in the mother's womb during pregnancy. Intrauterine growth retardation is a common finding in infants with TORCH infections, including congenital CMV infection.
Sensorineural hearing loss is the most common sequelae following congenital CMV infection.
Microcephaly is a neurodevelopmental disorder in which the head circumference is more than two standard deviations smaller than the average circumference for the person's age and gender. It is a common clinical feature of cytomegalovirus.
A seizure is defined as a transient episode of abnormal, excessive neuronal activity. Seizures are common in infants with congenital CMV infection.
Congenital CMV infection is associated with intracranial calcifications, especially in the periventricular regions. These calcifications occur due to necrosis in the periventricular area because CMV has a predilection for germinal matrix tissue.
Petechiae are small, red-purple discolorations on the body caused by broken capillary blood vessels. A petechial rash is a common finding in congenital CMV infection. The rash can also resemble a blueberry muffin rash, also seen in congenital rubella infection.
The term "blueberry muffin rash" was initially used to describe generalized hemorrhagic purpuric cutaneous manifestations observed in infants with congenital cytomegalovirus infection. Classically, this rash presents with non-blanching, blue-red macules or dome- shaped papules, and is similar to the rash seen in congenital rubella.
Chorioretinitis is inflammation of the choroid and retina of the eye, causing symptoms of floating black spots, blurry vision and pain in the eye. Chorioretinitis is commonly seen in congenital cytomegalovirus, along with other TORCH infections.
The diagnosis of congenital CMV infection at birth is usually via detection of the virus in urine within the first three weeks (21 days) of life, because infants shed large amounts of the virus in the urine. Follow-up testing after 21 days confirms the diagnosis. More rapid testing involves detection of the CMV virus in whole blood or plasma, via quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing.
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