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Antiphospholipid Syndrome

Ant-Tie Breaking Through Phospholipid Door
tantheman
8 KEY FACTS
CHARACTERISTICS/MANIFESTATIONS
Caused by Antibodies Against Phospholipid-Associated Proteins
Ant-Tie-Body Pointing at Protein on Phospholipid Door

Antiphospholipid syndrome is thought to be caused by a heterogenous group of antibodies directed against various proteins associated with phospholipids, such as those found in the cell membrane. The action of these antibodies then leads to activation of the clotting cascade. 

Recurrent Thromboembolisms
Trombone-Elmo with Repeat Sign

Antiphospholipid Syndrome manifests clinically as recurrent thromboembolisms, which can occur in the venous circulation in the form of deep vein thromboses (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), or arterial circulation as in transient ischemic attack (TIA)/stroke, and myocardial infarction (MI). 

Recurrent Miscarriage
Recurring-Cycle of Carriages

One of the common clinical manifestations associated with Antiphospholipid Syndrome is recurrent miscarriage. The underlying pathophysiology is not completely understood, however it is thought that the activation of coagulation caused by antiphospholipid antibodies may play a role by leading to poor circulation to the placenta. 

Most Commonly Associated with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus 
Loopy-butterfly with one-foam finger

Antiphospholipid Syndrome can be primary, meaning it occurs on its own in the absence of any known associated conditions, or secondary, being associated with a known autoimmune condition. The most commonly associated condition is Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. 

DIAGNOSIS
Anticardiolipin Antibody
Ant-ties against cardio-lightning

Diagnosis of Antiphospholipid Syndrome consists of testing for the presence of certain antibodies, of which there are several specifically associated with Antiphospholipid Syndrome, including anticardiolipin antibody. 

Anti-Beta-2-Glycoprotein-1 Antibody
Ant-Tie-Beta Fish-Tutu-Glider-1 Wand

Diagnosis of Antiphospholipid Syndrome consists of testing for the presence of certain antibodies, of which there are several specifically associated with Antiphospholipid Syndrome, including Anti-Beta-2-Glycoprotein-1 Antibody.

Lupus Anticoagulant
Ant-tie-clogs watching Lupus-loop butterfly

Diagnosis of Antiphospholipid Syndrome consists of testing for the presence of certain antibodies, of which there are several specifically associated with Antiphospholipid Syndrome, including Lupus Anticoagulant. Importantly, the term "Lupus Anticoagulant" is actually a misnomer and refers to the fact that it has an anticoagulant effect during in-vitro testing in labs, however in the body it has a pro-coagulant effect. 

TREATMENT
Warfarin in Patients with Recurrent Thrombosis
War-Fairy Releasing Long-Cloud over Cycling Trombone-Elmos and Carriages

In patients found to have an antibody titer consistent with antiphospholipid syndrome and who have had clinical manifestations such as recurrent thrombosis or miscarriages, long-term anticoagulation with Warfarin is indicated. For these patients, Warfarin is preferred over direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) as it has been shown to be more effective, though the exact reason why is not well known. 

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