The midgut begins at the distal duodenum. The anatomic landmark that specifically marks this is the ligament of Treitz, which is a suspensory ligament derived from peritoneum.
The ligament of Treitz, also known as the suspensory ligament of the duodenum, consists of a fold of peritoneum that suspends the distal part of the duodenum from the retroperitoneum. It serves as the anatomic reference that separates the midgut from the foregut.
The distal duodenum through the proximal 2/3 of the transverse colon is considered midgut. The anatomic landmark dividing midgut from hindgut is the splenic flexure of the colon.
The vagus nerve supplies parasympathetic innervation to the midgut. Recall that the vagus nerve is also known as cranial nerve 10, as it is the 10th nerve to exit the spinal cord through the cranium.
The midgut's blood supply is derived from the superior mesenteric artery, which is the second of the three gut-supplying arteries to branch off the aorta.
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