A carboxylation reaction is a chemical reaction in which a carboxylic acid group is added to a substrate. This type of reaction is seen in the synthesis of amino acids and fatty acids.
Biotin is essential for a key reaction in gluconeogenesis when pyruvate undergoes carboxylation to be converted to oxaloacetate.
Biotin is an essential coenzyme for the carboxylation of propionyl-CoA to methylmalonyl-CoA, which allows carbons to enter the Kreb cycle downstream.
Biotin is an essential coenzyme for a key reaction in the synthesis of fatty acids when acetyl CoA undergoes carboxylation to be converted to malonyl CoA.
Chronic antibiotic use can cause biotin deficiency by depleting the body of the necessary bacteria that convert biotin to its active form.
Raw eggs contain a compound, avidin, which actively binds to biotin and disables activity. Ingestion of an excessive amount of raw eggs can cause a biotin deficiency.
Hair growth also requires this diverse vitamin, and a Biotin deficiency can present as hair loss.
Biotin deficiency can present as a nonspecific skin rash characterized by erythema and irritation.
Biotin deficiency can cause nonspecific enteritis.
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