Acute and chronic vitamin A consumption can cause hair loss in individuals, also known as alopecia.
Vision changes, such as blurriness, are common symptoms of vitamin A toxicity.
Headaches are a common symptom seen in both acute and chronic vitamin A toxicity.
Drying of the skin and mucous membranes is a common sign of chronic vitamin A consumption. Other skin changes include discoloration and a rash.
Hyperlipidemia involves abnormally elevated levels of lipids in the blood and can result from chronic vitamin A toxicity. Although the exact mechanism is poorly understood, the hyperlipidemia may result from damage to stellate cells in the liver which store both vitamin A and fat.
Vitamin A is largely stored in the fat storing cells of the liver and can undergo hypertrophy and hyperplasia as vitamin A storage increases. Hypertrophy of these cells can result in narrowing of the space of Disse, obstruction of sinusoidal blood flow, portal hypertension, and hepatocyte death and fibrosis. Vitamin A hepatotoxicity has been reported when individuals take doses exceeding 50,000 IU/day.
Excessive vitamin A consumption can lead to arthralgias, or joint pain. Muscle and bone pain can also be seen.
Vitamin A is teratogenic as toxic effects have been shown to significantly affect a developing fetus due to disruption of neural cell activity. Due to the teratogenic effects, women on isotretinoin require two forms of birth control.
Cleft palate is a birth defect in which the two plates of the skull that form the roof of the mouth are not completely fused. Cleft palate can occur in infants whose mothers ingested large amounts of vitamin A during pregnancy.
Vitamin A is a teratogen, meaning it can cause birth defects when taken during pregnancy. Heart abnormalities are common in infants whose mothers ingested large amounts of vitamin A during pregnancy.
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