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Medicine (MD/DO)
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USMLE Step 1
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Microbiology
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Gram Negative Bacilli
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Burkholderia

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Burkholderia

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Burkholderia

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DikeHAfifi
9 KEY FACTS
CHARACTERISTICS
Gram-Negative
Graham-cracker Negative-devil

Burkholderia species are gram-negative, with no retention of violet stain in gram staining. This species has two clinical pathogens: B. cepacia complex, which manifests with an opportunistic infection, and B. pseudomallei, which manifests with melioidosis.

Bacilli
Rod

This organism has a bacilli shape. It means that it is rod-shaped.

Catalase-Positive
Positive-Cat

Burkholderia is a catalase-positive organism, meaning it can produce the enzyme catalase, which catalyzes the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen.

Oxidase Positive
Ox-daisy

Burkholderia is oxidase-positive, which means it can produce cytochrome c oxidase that works on the electron transport chain. This bacteria can use oxygen as a terminal electron acceptor in respiration, a crucial process for generating energy for the cell.

Non-lactose Fermenting
Nun-Milk-carton Ferns

Burkholderia is not able to ferment lactose as an energy source. This fact can be seen in its growth as white colonies on MacConkey agar.

CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS
Pneumonia
Nude-Mona

Burkholderia infection can present with encephalomyelitis, skin abscesses, and pneumonia.

ASSOCIATIONS
Cystic Fibrosis
Sisters with Fibrous-sacks

Patients with cystic fibrosis are susceptible to Burkholderia infections, particularly those caused by the Burkholderia cepacia complex.

CONSIDERATIONS
Often Multidrug Resistant
Drugs Wearing Resistant-bandana

Burkholderia species are often multidrug resistant, which makes them particularly difficult to treat.

CONTRAINDICATION
Contraindication to Undergo Lung Transplantation
Lung Train-plant Caution-tape

A patient infected with Burkholderia is contraindicated from undergoing lung transplantation due to its poor clinical outcome.

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