Sodium is absorbed into the renal cortex tissue through active transport, which involves using ATP to remove sodium from the filtrate.
Water absorption also occurs here because of the sodium concentration gradient.
Glucose is reabsorbed here through cotransport driven by the sodium gradient out of the nephron.
Amino acids and other organic materials are also absorbed through cotransport channels, using the sodium gradient.
Bicarbonate is reabsorbed into the renal tissue and protons are secreted into the filtrate. This helps with pH regulation of the blood and filtrate.
Most drugs and toxins are secreted in the proximal tubule of the kidney, which is why excessive use of medication can lead to kidney failure.
The filtrate has the same osmolarity, substrate concentration, as blood plasma due to the reabsorption of substrates.
The filtrate travels from the proximal tubule into the loop of Henle.
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