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Immune System Tissues

Moon with Tissues
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There are a variety of organs and cells in the immune system that contribute to the body's defense against foreign particles. The bone marrow is the site of haematopoiesis, which results in the formation of B and T cells. B cells participate in the humoral immune response, while T cells participate in cell-mediated immunity. B cells began maturing in the bone marrow itself and finish becoming functional cells in the spleen. In contrast, T cells mature in the thymus where they are tested for self response. T cells are tested for autoimmunity to prevent released T cells from recognizing and attacking the body's own proteins and antigens.Both B and T cells reside in the lymph nodes, which are large organs spread throughout the body that filter and circulate lymph. Here, mature B and T cells monitor the lymph for pathogens and conduct their respective immune responses upon exposure to a foreign antigen. The spleen is a lymphatic organ where blood is filtered, and it is the site of B and T cells monitoring blood for pathogens.
10 KEY FACTS
CHARACTERISTICS
Bone Marrow
Bone Marilyn-Monroe

The bone marrow is the location where immature B and T cells form. They develop from the stem cells located in the bone marrow.

B Cells and T Cells Formed
Baby Basketball and Tennis Ball in a Cradle

B and T cells are formed in the bone marrow from stem cells in a process called haematopoiesis.

B Cells Mature
Old Basketball

B cells reach a semi-mature level in the bone marrow before traveling to the spleen and becoming a fully-functional mature B cell.

Thymus
Thigh-mouse

The thymus is an immune system organ primarily involved in the maturation of T cells. It is located in front of the heart and behind the sternum.

T Cells Tested For Self-Response
Tennis-balls fighting each other

T cells are tested for self response in the thymus. Autoimmunity is when the body's immune cells attack the body itself, and to avoid this, T cells are tested for whether they attack the body's proteins and antigens.

T Cells Mature
Old Tennis-ball

T cells reach maturity in the thymus and are ready to destroy infected cells (cytotoxic and natural killer T cells) or assist by activating B and killer T cells (helper T cells).

Lymph Nodes
Lime-nose

The lymph nodes are the garrisons of immunity cells. They are distributed throughout the body and linked by lymphatic vessels. They are filters and traps for foreign molecules.

Mature B Cells and T Cells Monitor Lymph For Pathogens
Old Basketball and Tennis-ball monitor Lime-juice for Pathogen

In the lymph nodes, mature B and T cells monitor the lymph circulating through for pathogens. B cells respond through antibody production, while cytotoxic and killer T cells destroy the pathogens.

Spleen
Spleen-spoon

The spleen is analogous to the large lymph nodes for blood filtration. It holds a reserve of blood in case of hemorrhage and filters red blood cells. In the immune system, it serves as a site of B and T cell activity.

Mature B Cells and T Cells Monitor Blood For Pathogens
Old Basketball and Tennis-ball monitor Blood for Pathogen

In the spleen, mature B and T cells look for pathogens and bind to any free floating antigens. They then trigger the humoral adaptive immune response and the cell-mediated adaptive immune response.

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