Macrophages consume pathogens or pathogen-infected cells. Both macrophages and dendritic cells present antigens on the cell surface so that other immune cells can recognize the infection and coordinate a specific response.
T cells develop antigen specificity in order to target infected cells with a specific pathogen. This allows them to respond to each pathogen individually and also to create a memory response that will trigger on secondary infection by the same pathogen.
Regulatory T cells help suppress the immune response in order to prevent unintended damage to the body by non-specific immune processes. Once the pathogen has been eliminated, the immune system must return to its dormant state.
Memory T cells persist after an infection has been resolved and duplicate to large numbers of effector T cells upon re-exposure to a pathogen.
Cytotoxic T cells destroy cells infected by viruses or bacteria through cell lysis. They also help destroy cancer cells.
Any infected cells present antigens on the cell surface in order to trigger the adaptive and humoral immune responses. The humoral immune response involves antibody production.
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