Chief cells in the stomach secrete pepsinogen, which is activated by H+ into pepsin, a protease (digests protein).
Pepsinogen is activated by the hydrogen ions in the stomach (from HCl) and turned into Pepsin.
Protein break down begins in the stomach and finishes in the duodenum of the small intestine.
Mucous cells in the stomach secrete mucus and bicarbonate. Mucus protects the muscles of the stomach from erosion due to the acidic and proteolytic nature of the inside of the stomach. Bicarbonate also helps protect the stomach by neutralizing some of the remaining acid after the stomach's contents pass on to the small intestine.
G cells of the stomach secrete gastrin, which stimulate further secretions from the stomach.
Gastrin stimulates parietal cells into releasing more hydrochloric acid. Gastrin also induces mixing of the contents of the stomach to form an acidic semifluid mixture called chyme.
Parietal cells also release intrinsic factor which is required for the absorption of vitamin B12.
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