Because they bind only to the cell surface and affect change through secondary messengers, peptide hormones can cause the intended change in physiology relatively rapidly. The effects of peptide hormones are short-lived because they only temporarily induce secondary messengers, but do not affect long-term processes like translation or transcription.
Peptide hormones bind to receptors on the surface of cells rather than on intracellular receptors.
Peptide hormones interact with receptors to stimulate secondary messengers within the cell, such as cAMP.
Peptide hormones are derived from many amino acids and are processed in the endoplasmic reticulum.
Insulin is a peptide hormone produced by the beta cells of the pancreas. It functions to deliver glucose from the bloodstream into muscle, fat, liver, and most other cells, allowing the body to use it for fuel.
Parathyroid hormone, PTH, is a peptide hormone used in bone remodeling. It enhances the release of calcium from the bones when calcium levels in the blood are too low. Additionally, it works to reduce the reabsorption of phosphate, reducing its levels in the blood, and also helps to activate vitamin D.
Vasopressin, also called antidiuretic hormone, is a peptide hormone which acts on the kidneys and blood vessels. This hormone helps prevent loss of water from the body by reducing urine output and helping the kidneys reabsorb water into the body.
Oxytocin is a peptide hormone and a neuropeptide. It functions to allow the milk-letdown reflex and stimulates breastfeeding. Additionally, it increases uterine contraction. It also has functions in selective social bonding and sexual pleasure.
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