mRNA is messenger RNA, created by RNA polymerase from DNA. It undergoes several post-transcriptional modifications to be fully functional. It functions to convey genetic information from the DNA to the ribosome, working to specify which proteins should be produced by expressed genes.
The 3' end of mRNA has a poly A tail, a long sequence of adenines, to protect it from unintentional damage. This is also called polyadenylation.
The 5’ end has a modified guanine nucleotide to prevent RNases from breaking down the functional mRNA.
mRNA is used as the template for translation from DNA. Based off of what the DNA strand reads, mRNA transcribes its information, leading to translation of this information into functional proteins.
rRNA is ribosomal RNA, used in the protein synthesis machinery.
rRNA helps join amino acids together to create a polypeptide chain.
rRNA is the largest component of ribosomes by weight. Ribosomes are the enzymes that read mRNA and synthesize polypeptides.
tRNA is transfer RNA and is used to match the code in mRNA to appropriate amino acids. tRNA serves as a physical link between the mRNA and the amino acid sequence of proteins.
tRNA has an anticodon region, made up of three nucleotides, that matches with the base codons on mRNA to ensure that the correct amino acid is delivered to the ribosome.
The 3' tail of tRNA is bound to the amino acid, which allows for matching of an anticodon region and amino acid.
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