Ace Your Biochemistry and Genetics Classes and Exams with Picmonic: #1 Visual Mnemonic Study Tool for Pre-Health Students

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Biochemistry and Genetics | Pre-Health School Study Aid

Cellular Basics
10 Picmonics to Learn | 15 mins
Cell Components
Cell membrane separates inside and outside
Nucleus stores DNA
Rough ER has ribosomes making proteins
Vesicles transport proteins to Golgi complex and out of the cell
Golgi complex packages and transports molecules
In animals, mitochondria produce ATP
In plants chloroplasts create carbohydrates
In Plants Mitochondria Consume Carbohydrates to Make ATP
Smooth ER synthesizes lipids
Lysosomes are used for recycling and apoptosis
Vacuoles are used for storing waste and toxins
Ribosomes produce protein
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2 mins
Cells and the Nucleus
Cells are the smallest unit of life
Cells are the building blocks of all life
The nucleus is the "brain" of the cell
The nucleus holds DNA
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1 min
Chromosome and DNA
DNA is the blueprint for building an organism
A chromosome is packed with DNA
Chromosomes exist in pairs
Humans have 23 chromosome pairs
Chromosomes are found in the nucleus
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1 min
Genes and Alleles
A gene is a fragment of DNA that codes for a trait (hair color)
An allele is a form of a gene that codes for a specific characteristic (brown hair)
Half of a child's genes and alleles come from each parent
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1 min
Homozygous vs. Heterozygous
Description of Genotypes
Homozygous has 2 of the same allele (AA or aa)
Homozygous dominant is AA
Homozygous Recessive is aa
Heterozygous has 2 different alleles (Aa)
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2 mins
Genotype vs. Phenotype
Genotype is the genetic makeup
Genotype is coded in DNA
Genotype is shown as 2 letters that represent 2 alleles
Genotype is the code for phenotype
Phenotype is physical appearance of organism
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1 min
Passing characteristics from parent to offspring
Those characteristics can be similar to or different from parents
Half of the genes come from the father
Half of the genes come from mother
Recessive characteristics not expressed in either parent can be expressed in a child
Some phenotypes are more favorable than others in Natural Selection
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2 mins
Dominant vs. Recessive
Dominant allele dominates over recessive allele
If both alleles are present the dominant phenotype is expressed
The recessive phenotype is expressed only with two recessive alleles
Examples of dominant characteristics are widow's peak, dark hair, and dark eyes
Examples of recessive characteristics are straight hairline, light hair, and light eyes
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2 mins
Hardy-Weinberg Principle
Constant Allele and Genotype frequencies with no evolutionary forces
Conditions for Equilibrium
No selection
Large population
No migration
Random mating
No net mutations
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55 secs
Hybrid Punnett Square
Gregor Mendel
Two Hybrid Parents Mate
3 children have the same phenotype
1 child has a different phenotype
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1 min

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