Ace Your First Aid for the USMLE Step 1 (2021) Classes and Exams with Picmonic: #1 Visual Mnemonic Study Tool for Physician Assistant (PA) Students

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First Aid for the USMLE Step 1 (2021) | Physician Assistant (PA) School Study Aid


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Hyperlipoproteinemia (Type V Dyslipidemia)
Pathophysiology
Increased Cholesterol
Increased VLDL
Increased Chylomicrons
Increased Triglycerides
Increased Risk of Cardiovascular Disease
Clinical Features
Xanthomas
Acute Pancreatitis
Diagnosis
Lipid Panel
Management
Lifestyle Changes
Statins
Fibrates
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2 mins
Hypercholesterolemia Disease
Risk Factors
Diabetes
Smoking
Family History
Hypertension
HDL < 40
Men Older than 45 Years of Age
Women Older than 55 Years of Age
Signs and Symptoms
Atheromas
Plaques in Blood Vessel Walls
Tissue Ischemia
Xanthomas
Lipemia Retinalis
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2 mins
Hypercholesterolemia Risk Stratification
0 - 1 Risk Factors
< 160 mg/dl LDL goal
greater or equal to 2 Risk Factors and 10-year Risk ≤ 20%
< 130 mg/dL LDL Goal
Coronary Heart Disease OR >/= to 2 Risk Factors AND 10-Year Risk > 20%
< 100 mg/dL LDL Goal
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2 mins
Hypercholesterolemia Treatment
Lifestyle Modifications (Diet, Exercise, Smoking Cessation)
Statins
Niacin
Ezetimibe
Fibrates
Bile Acid Resins
Screening
Men greater or equal to 35 Years Old (20-35 if at increased risk)
Women greater or equal to 45 Years Old (20-45 if at increased risk)
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2 mins
Abetalipoproteinemia
Pathophysiology
Autosomal Recessive
Deficiency of Apolipoproteins B-48 and B-100
MTTP Gene Mutation
Clinical Features
Malabsorption
Steatorrhea
Failure to Thrive
Ataxia
Retinitis Pigmentosa
Spinocerebellar Degeneration
Diagnosis
Lipid-Laden Enterocytes
Acanthocytes
Decreased Cholesterol and LDL
Treatment
Vitamin E (Alpha-Tocopherol)
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4 mins
Hyperchylomicronemia (Type I Familial Dyslipidemia)
INHERITANCE
Autosomal Recessive
PATHOGENESIS
Lipoprotein Lipase Deficiency (LPL)
Altered Apolipoprotein C-II (Apo C-II)
Lab Findings
Increased Chylomicrons
Increased Cholesterol
Increased Triglycerides
Symptoms/Findings
Pancreatitis
Hepatosplenomegaly
No Increased Risk for Atherosclerosis
Eruptive/Pruritic Xanthomas
Milky White Appearance of Blood When Drawn
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3 mins
Familial Hypercholesterolemia (Type IIa Familial Dyslipidemia)
INHERITANCE
Autosomal Dominant
PATHOGENESIS
Defective or Absent LDL Receptors
Defective Apolipoprotein B-100 (ApoB-100)
Lab Findings
Increased LDL
Decreased HDL
Type IIb also has Increased VLDL
Symptoms/Findings
Accelerated Atherosclerosis
Achilles Tendon Xanthomas
Xanthelasma
Corneal Arcus
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4 mins
Dysbetalipoproteinemia (Type III Familial Dyslipidemia)
INHERITANCE
Autosomal Recessive
PATHOGENESIS
Defective Apolipoprotein E (Apo E)
Lab Findings
Increased Chylomicrons
Increased VLDL
Symptoms/Findings
Premature atherosclerosis
Tuberoeruptive xanthomas
Palmar xanthomas
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3 mins
Hypertriglyceridemia (Type IV Familial Dyslipidemia)
INHERITANCE
Autosomal Dominant
pathogenesis
Hepatic Overproduction of VLDL
Related to Insulin Resistance
Lab Findings
Increased VLDL
Increased Triglycerides (> 1000 mg/dL)
Symptoms/Findings
Acute Pancreatitis
Eruptive Xanthomas
Increased Risk for Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)
Increased Risk of Peripheral Vascular Disease
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3 mins

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