# Ace Your Calculations, Biostatistics & Lab Values Classes and Exams with Picmonic: #1 Visual Mnemonic Study Tool for Pharmacist (Pharm.D) Students

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## Calculations, Biostatistics & Lab Values | Pharmacist (Pharm.D) School Study Aid

Biostatistics
11 Picmonics to Learn | 15 mins
Attributable Risk (AR)
Use
Proportion Exposure Increases Disease
Formula
Incidence of Diseased (Sick)
Equals =
Exposed Group
a / (a + b)
Minus -
Unexposed Group
c / (c + d)
1 min
Negative Predictive Value (NPV)
Proportion of Negative Tests that are Truly Negative
Probability that Person with Negative Test is Healthy
Formula
(TN) True Negatives
Divided by /
All Negative Test Results
(FN + TN)
Considerations
Varies Inversely with Prevalence
1 min
Odds Ratio (OR)
Use
Case Control Studies
Measures Association Between an Exposure and an Outcome
Formula
Odds of Exposure in Diseased (Sick) Group
a / c
Divided /
Odds of Exposure in Healthy Group
b / d
Interpretation
=1 Exposure does not affect odds
> 1 Exposure increases disease
< 1 Exposure decreases disease
2 mins
Peak and Trough
Peak
Highest Concentration
Trough
Lowest Level of Therapeutic Range
Obtain Before Next Dose
Half-Life
2 mins
Positive Predictive Value (PPV)
Proportion of Positive Tests that are True Positive
Probability that Person with Positive Test has Disease
Formula
TP (True Positives)
Divided by /
All Positive Test Results
TP + FP
Considerations
Varies Directly with Prevalence
1 min
Relative Risk (RR)
Use
Used in Cohort Studies
Formula
Risk of Developing Disease
Equals =
Exposed Group
a / (a + b)
Divided by /
Unexposed Group
c / (c + d)
When Low Prevalence Odds Ratio Approximates Relative Risk
2 mins
Sensitivity
Characteristics
Rules Out
Screening Test
Formula
TP / (FN+TP)
2 mins
Specificity
Characteristics
Rules In
Confirmatory Test
Formula
TN / (TN + FP)
1 min
Case Control Study
Observational
Retrospective
Compares those with disease to those without
Measurement
Odds Ratio
47 secs
Cohort Study
Observational
Longitudinal
Studies risk from exposure
Retrospective
Prospective
1 min
Cross-Sectional Study
Observational
Data at One Specific Point in Time
(Finds) Frequency of Disease
Measurement
Prevalence
49 secs

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