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Rubella

Red-bell
Picmonic
Rubella, also known as the German measles, is an acute, mild systemic viral disease that produces a distinctive 3-day rash and lymphadenopathy. It is spread primarily via nasopharyngeal secretions. It is the most benign of all childhood communicable diseases, but poses the greatest danger to the fetus (teratogenic effects) if the mother contracts the disease while pregnant. Incubation period 14-21 days and communicable 7 days before to 5 days after appearance of rash.
8 KEY FACTS
MECHANISM
Rubella Virus
Red-bell Virus

Rubella is a virus that is transmitted by droplets or direct contact with an object that has been contaminated. The virus is also transmitted to a fetus in utero.

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
Swollen Glands
Swollen Glands

Swollen glands, also referred to as lymphadenopathy, is known to occur in Rubella, particularly in the postauricular, cervical, and suboccipital regions. 

Cold-like Symptoms
Cold with Thermometer and Ice-bag

Symptoms often resemble cold like symptoms such as runny nose, general malaise and fever.

Pinkish-red Maculopapular Rash
Pink-and-red Mac-glow-papule-people

The rash associated with Rubella has pinpoint, pinkish-red maculopapular that first appears on the face and then spreads to the trunk and extremities within 24 hours, unlike Rubeola (measles) which spreads slower and darkens with time. The rash usually lasts about 3 days; hence the name 3 day measles. 

Low Grade Fever
Low Grade Fever-beaver

Rubella is associated with a low grade fever and often appears several days before a rash develops. A fever may present at the same time as lymphadenopathy and arthritis in adults.

CONSIDERATIONS
Rubella Titer
Red-bell Teeter-totter

During pregnancy a titer level is drawn to detect immunity. This is a blood test used to detect antibodies made by the immune system to help kill the rubella virus. A titer of 1:8 IgG antibodies usually indicates immunity.

Avoid Contact with Pregnant Women
Avoid Pregnant Woman

Children with this virus are advised to avoid all contact with pregnant women due to the virus being teratogenic.

MMR Vaccination
M&M-aRt Syringe

There is no cure for rubella and the best treatment is prevention via vaccine. The vaccine is a two part vaccine for Measles, Mumps and Rubella. The first dose is given between the ages of 12-15 months and the second dose between ages 4-6 years old. This vaccine is usually required prior to enrollment in school.

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