Master Exanthema Subitum (Roseola Infantum) with Picmonic for Nursing RN

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Exanthema Subitum (Roseola Infantum)

X-rash and Rose-O Infant
Picmonic
A common, acute benign viral infection, that is one of the childhood exanthems. It has also been called 6th disease as it was the 6th childhood exanthem. Roseola usually occurs in infants and young children (ages 6 months to 3 years). It is characterized by sudden onset of a high temperature, followed by a rash. The condition occurs year round and generally affects children age 6 months to 15 months. The incubation period is typically 5 to 15 days. Little is known about the transmission and communicability but it is thought to transmit through secretions, like saliva.
7 KEY FACTS
MECHANISM
Human Herpesvirus Type 6
Harp-virus with (6) Sax

This benign viral infection is thought to be transmitted by saliva. Most cases are caused by human herpesvirus type 6 (HHV-6), but some cases may be attributed to HHV-7. Although transmission is through droplets, isolation is not required.

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
Sudden High Fever
Sudden High Fever-beaver

A sudden high fever of 37.9-40C (101-106F) is common and persists for 3-5 days in most children. Febrile seizures are a concern for many children.

Maculopapular, Nonpruritic Rash
Mac-glow-papule-people with Nun-praire-dog

Once the fever begins to subside, a rash appears. The rash is typically pinkish, red or raised spots that classically blanches or fades under pressure. It disappears in 1 to 2 days.

CONSIDERATIONS
Febrile Seizures
Fever Caesar

Any child with an exceptionally high fever is at risk for febrile seizures. Measures to control the fever are the primary treatment. 

Tepid Baths
Tipi-bath

Submersion in tepid water is a common practice to reduce exceptionally high fevers. Be sure never to submerse a child or patient in cool or cold water. Cool packs may also be applied to older children in the groin and armpits. 

Ibuprofen
Eye-Boop-fin

Non-steroidal anti inflammatory medications (NSAIDS) like ibuprofen are given for their anti-pyretic properties. 

Acetaminophen
A-cheetah-with-a-fin

Acetaminophen (Tylenol) is an analgesic medication which also has strong anti-pyretic properties. 

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