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Saunders Comprehensive Review For The NCLEX-RN Examination, 8 Ed. | Registered Nurse (RN) School Study Aid


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10 - Vital Signs and Laboratory Reference Intervals
22 Picmonics to Learn | 32 mins

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Vital Signs - Adult
Temperature (96.8-100.4 Degrees F) (36-38 Degrees C)
Rectal - Remove 1 Degree From Measurement
Axillary - Add 1 Degree to Measurement
Respiration (12-20)
Oxygen Saturation (94%-100%)
Pulse (60-100)
Blood Pressure (<120/80)
Pain
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2 mins
Blood Pressure Classification (JNC 7)
Classifications
Normal
Systolic (< 120)
Diastolic (< 80)
Prehypertension
Systolic +20 (120-139)
Diastolic +10 (80-89)
Stage 1 Hypertension
Systolic +20 (140-159)
Diastolic +10 (90-99)
Stage 2 Hypertension
Systolic + > 20 (160)
Diastolic + > 10 (100)
Hypertensive Crisis
Systolic > 180
Diastolic > 110
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4 mins
High Blood Pressure Response
Characteristics
Atria Release Atrial Natriuretic Peptide
Vasodilation
Antagonizes Aldosterone
Na+ and Water Excreted
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1 min
Low Blood Pressure Response
Characteristics
Posterior Pituitary Releases Vasopressin
Vasoconstriction
Adrenal Cortex Releases Aldosterone
Increased Na+ and H2O Reabsorption
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1 min
Pain Assessment
Types of Pain
Acute Pain
Chronic Pain
OPQRST Mnemonic
Onset
Provoking or Palliative
Quality
Radiation
Severity
Timing
Nursing Considerations
Subjective Findings
Objective Findings
Reassessment of Pain
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2 mins
NSAIDs
Indications
Anti-inflammatory
Analgesic
Fever
Closure of PDA
Mechanism of Action
Reversible Inhibition of COX-1 and COX-2
Block Prostaglandin Synthesis
Side Effects
Interstitial Nephritis
Gastric Ulcer
Renal Ischemia
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1 min
Aspirin (Acetylsalicylic Acid)
Mechanism
Inhibits Platelet Aggregation
NSAID
Indications
Thrombotic Event Prevention
General Pain
Inflammatory Conditions
Fever
Side Effects
Pancytopenia
GI Ulcers
Bleeding
Considerations
Withhold Before Surgery 7-10 Days
Reye's Syndrome
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2 mins
Opioid Antidote
Antidote
Naloxone
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28 secs
Codeine
Mechanism
Opioid Receptor Agonist
Indications
Mild to Moderate Pain
Cough Suppressant
Side Effects
Sedation
Constipation
Miosis
Considerations
Close Monitoring When Breast Feeding
Often Combined with Non-Opioids
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2 mins
Whole Blood Composition
Characteristics
Plasma
Electrolytes And Other Solutes
Proteins
Albumin
Fibrinogen
Globulins
Water
Formed Elements
Buffy Coat
White Blood Cells (WBC)
Platelets
Red Blood Cells (RBC)
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2 mins
PT/PTT Lab Values
Prothrombin Time (PT)
10-14 seconds
Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (PTT or aPTT)
25-35 seconds
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1 min
INR Lab Value
0.8-1.2 Normal Range
Warfarin
2.0-3.0
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1 min
Platelet Lab Value
150,000-400,000 Micro L
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40 secs
Hemoglobin (Hgb) Lab Values
Men: 13 - 17 g/dL
Women: 12 - 16 g/dL
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46 secs
Hemoglobin
Hemoglobin Has Four Iron Hemes
Lots Of Hemoglobin In Red Blood Cells
High O2 Levels Increase O2 Binding
High Temperature Reduces O2 Binding
High CO2 Levels Reduce O2 Binding
Low pH Reduces O2 Binding
Myoglobin Binds Oxygen in Muscle
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2 mins
Hematocrit (Hct) Lab Values
Women: 36% - 46%
Men: 41% - 53%
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1 min
Cholesterol Lab Values
LDL (Low Density Cholesterol)
< 100 mg/dL
HDL (High Density Cholesterol)
> 40 mg/dL Males
> 50 mg/dL Females
Total Cholesterol
< 200 mg/dL
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1 min
Triglycerides Lab Value
< 150 mg/dL
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50 secs
Hemoglobin A1c Lab Value
4-6%
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1 min
Creatinine Lab Values
Measures Renal Function
0.6 - 1.3 mg/dL
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1 min
BUN (Blood Urea Nitrogen) Lab Values
10-20 mg/dL
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40 secs
WBC Differential Lab Value
White Blood Cells (WBC)
5-10 (5,000-10,000)
Leukocyte Differential
Neutrophils (50%-70%)
Bands (2%-5%)
Segs (50%-70%)
Lymphocytes (20%-40%)
Monocytes (4%-8%)
Eosinophils (2%-4%)
Basophils (0.5%-1.5%)
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2 mins

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