# Ace Your Pharmacology: A Patient-Centered Nursing Process Approach 10th Ed., McCuistion Classes and Exams with Picmonic: #1 Visual Mnemonic Study Tool for Registered Nurse (RN) Students

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### Pharmacology: A Patient-Centered Nursing Process Approach 10th Ed., McCuistion | Registered Nurse (RN) School Study Aid

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Drug Calculations
33 Picmonics to Learn | 1 hr 0 mins

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Metric System
Weight
Kilogram (kg)
Gram (g/gm)
Milligram (mg)
Microgram (mcg)
Volume
Liter (L)
Milliliter (mL)
Length
Meter (m)
Converting
Larger to Smaller: Multiply
Smaller to Larger: Divide
3 mins
Conversions: Weight
1000 mcg = 1 mg
1000 mg = 1 g
1000 g = 1 kg
2.2 lb = 1 kg
1 min
Conversions: Volume
Volume
1 mL = 1 cc
5 mL = 1 Tsp
15 mL = 1 Tbsp
30 mL = 1 oz
1000 mL = 1L
2 Tbsp = 1 oz
8 oz = 1 Cup
2 mins
Conversions: Pounds and Kilograms
2.2 lb (pounds)
1 kg (kilogram)
Know Your Own Weight
37 secs
Conversions: Temperature
0° C = 32° F
How to Convert Celsius to Fahrenheit
°C x 1.8 + 32 = °F
1 min
SKIN TESTING
Tuberculin Screening
Allergy Testing
Dermis
Inner Forearm or Upper Back
1mL Syringe (26 or 27 Gauge Needle)
5 to 15 Degrees
Small Bleb
2 mins
Acetaminophen
Indications
Fever
Pain
Mechanism of Action
Reversibly inhibits COX
Acts primarily in CNS
Side Effect
Hepatic Necrosis
N-acetylcysteine Antidote
51 secs
Heparin (Unfractionated)
Mechanism of Action
Suppresses Coagulation
Indications
Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT)
Pulmonary Embolism
Side Effects
Hemorrhage
Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia (HIT)
Considerations
Monitor aPTT
Preferred (Safe) During Pregnancy
Antidote
Protamine Sulfate
2 mins
Morphine
Mechanism
Opioid Receptor Agonist
Indications
Pain
Myocardial Infarction
Side Effects
Nausea and Vomiting
CNS Depression
Biliary Colic
Constipation
Increased Intracranial Pressure (ICP)
Pupillary Constriction
Hypotension
2 mins
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitors
"-pril" Suffix
Mechanism of Action
Block Renin Angiotensin-Aldosterone System (RAAS)
Indications
Hypertension
Heart Failure
Side Effects
Dry Non-productive Cough
Hypotension
Dizziness
Possible Hyperkalemia
Angioedema
Nursing Considerations
Slowly Change Position
Do Not Stop Abruptly
2 mins
Loop Diuretics
Mechanism of Action
Thick ascending limb of Loop of Henle
Inhibits Na+-K+-2Cl-
Sulfa drug
Drug Names
Furosemide
Lasix
Side Effects
Ototoxicity from Rapid Injection
Gout
Dehydration
Hypocalcemia
Hypokalemia
Orthostatic Hypotension
2 mins
Loop Diuretic Education
Furosemide (Lasix)
Indications
Heart Failure
Pulmonary Edema
Acute Renal Failure (ARF)
Edema
Education
Notify the provider of weakness, dizziness, or muscle cramping
Increase Potassium Intake
Check BP Daily
Daily Weights and Monitor IandOs
1 min
Ratio and Proportion
Ratio
Two Numbers Separated by a Colon
Colon Indicates Division
Proportion
Equation with Two Equal Ratios
Double Colons Indicates Equal Sign
Extremes
Means
Calculating the Dose
Set up the Proportion
Cross-Multiply Means and Extremes
Divide Both Sides by the Number Before Unknown Variable
3 mins
Standard Formula
Memorize the Formula
Dose Ordered
Dose on Hand
Amount on Hand (Quantity)
Before Calculating the Dose
Ensure Same Units and System of Measurement
Calculating the Dose
Dose Ordered/Dose on Hand X Amount on Hand = Amount to Administer
2 mins
Phenobarbital (Barbiturates)
Mechanism
Barbiturate
Indications
Seizures
Side Effects
Ataxia
Fatigue/Drowsiness
Considerations
Monitor Plasma Levels
High Potential for Abuse
1 min
Ampicillin and Amoxicillin
Mechanism
Aminopenicillin
Indications
Gram-Positive and Some Gram-Negative Infections
Side Effects
Rash
Diarrhea
Considerations
No Effect Against Staph Aureus
Often combined with Beta Lactamase Inhibitor
Allergic Reaction
2 mins
Aspirin (Acetylsalicylic Acid)
Mechanism
Inhibits Platelet Aggregation
NSAID
Indications
Thrombotic Event Prevention
General Pain
Inflammatory Conditions
Fever
Side Effects
Pancytopenia
GI Ulcers
Bleeding
Considerations
Withhold Before Surgery 7-10 Days
Reye's Syndrome
2 mins
Fluoroquinolones
End in "-floxacin"
Mechanism of Action
Bactericidal
Indications
Variety of Infections
Side Effects
GI Distress
Photosensitivity
Achilles Tendon Rupture
Contraindications
Pregnancy
Children
Myasthenia Gravis
Considerations
Avoid Milk Products or Antacids
Slow IV Infusion
2 mins
Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (SSRI) Overview
Indications
Depression
Anxiety
Mechanism of Action
Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors
Drugs
Paroxetine
Sertraline
Escitalopram
Fluoxetine
Side Effects
Sexual Dysfunction
Serotonin Syndrome
2 mins
Cisplatin (Platinol)
Mechanism
Alkylating Agent
Indications
Testicular Cancer
Ovarian Cancer
Side Effects
Nausea and Vomiting
Myelosuppression
Nephrotoxicity
Ototoxicity
Peripheral Neuropathy
Considerations
Aggressive Hydration
2 mins
Vincristine (Oncovin)
Mechanism
Vinca Alkaloid
Inhibits Microtubules
Indications
Leukemias
Lymphomas
Side Effects
Peripheral Neuropathy
Paralytic Ileus
Considerations
Vesicant
2 mins
Valproic Acid (Depakote)
Mechanism
Blocks Na+ Channels
Increases GABA Concentration
Indications
Tonic-clonic Seizures
Bipolar Disorder
Migraine Prophylaxis
Side Effects
Hepatotoxicity
Blood Dyscrasias
GI Distress
Tremor
Pancreatitis
1 min
Aminoglycoside Overview
End in "-mycin"
GNATS
Gentamicin
Neomycin
Amikacin
Tobramycin
Streptomycin
Mechanism of Action
Bactericidal
Indications
Severe Gram Negative Infections
Bowel Surgery Prep
1 min
Cimetidine and Ranitidine (H2 Receptor Blockers)
-tidine Suffix
Mechanism
H2 Receptor Blocker
Indications
Suppress Gastric Acid Secretion
Side Effects (All)
Pneumonia
Side Effects - Cimetidine
Anti-androgen Effects
CNS Changes
2 mins
Tetracyclines Overview
End in "-cycline"
Mechanism of Action
Bacteriostatic
Indications
Infectious Diseases
Acne
Periodontal Disease
Nursing Considerations
Avoid Milk, Antacids, Iron
Sunlight Protection
1 min
Mechanism of Action
Inhibits Clotting Factors
Indications
Atrial Fibrillation
Venous Thrombosis
Pulmonary Embolism
Assessment
PT/INR Levels
Observe for Bleeding
Contraindications
Pregnancy
Nursing Considerations
Vitamin K and Fresh Frozen Plasma
Prolonged Therapeutic Onset
Maintain Same Diet
2 mins
Hydrochlorothiazide HCTZ
Mechanism of Action
Inhibits Reabsorption NaCl and H2O
Indications
Edema
Mild to Moderate Hypertension
Side Effects
Hypokalemia
Hyponatremia
Dehydration
Hyperglycemia
Gout
Contraindications
Sulfa Allergy
Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
1 min
Phenytoin (Dilantin)
Mechanism
Blocks Na+ Channels
Indications
Tonic-clonic Seizures
Side Effects
Ataxia
Nystagmus
Sedation
Gingival Hyperplasia
Purple Glove Syndrome
Hirsutism
Rash
Anemia
Considerations
Individualized Dosing
2 mins
Atropine
Mechanism of Action
Muscarinic Antagonist
Indications
Increased Exocrine Secretions
Smooth Muscle Spasms
Side Effects
Tachycardia
Dry Mouth
Urinary Retention
2 mins
IV Solutions
Hypotonic (< 280 mOsm/L)
1/4 Normal Saline (0.225% NaCl)
1/2 Normal Saline (0.45% NaCl)
Isotonic (280-300 mOsm)
Normal Saline (0.9% NaCl)
Lactated Ringer's (LR)
Dextrose 5% in Water (D5W)
Hypertonic (> 300 mOsm)
3% or 5% NaCl
Dextrose 5% in 0.45% NaCl
Dextrose 10% in Water (D10W)
3 mins
IV Calculation Formulas
IV TUBING
Drop Factor
Macrodrip
Microdrip
FLOW RATES
Total Volume to Infuse (mL) X Drop Factor/ Time in Minutes = Drops/Minute (gtt/min)
INFUSION TIME
Total Volume to Infuse / mL per Hour Being Infused = Infusion Time
Number of mL/Hr
Total Volume in mL / Time in Hours = Number of mL per Hour
3 mins
Infusions Prescribed by Unit Dosage per Hour
Step 1
Determine Amount of Medication per 1mL
Known Amount of Medication in Solution/Total Volume of Diluent = Amount of Medication per Milliliter
Step 2
Calculate mL per Hour
Dose per Hour Desired/Concentration per Milliliter = Infusion Rate (mL/hour)
2 mins
Insulin
Rapid Acting
Insulin Lispro (Humalog)
Insulin Aspart (Novolog)
Insulin Glulisine (Apidra)
Short Acting
Regular Insulin (Humulin R)
Intermediate Acting
Isophane NPH (Humulin N)
Long Acting
Detemir (Levemir)
Glargine (Lantus)
2 mins