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Medical-Surgical Nursing, 11th Ed., Harding, Kwong, Roberts, Hagler & Reinisch | Registered Nurse (RN) School Study Aid

27 - Lower Respiratory Problems
15 Picmonics to Learn | 25 mins
Chronic Bronchitis Assessment
Clinical Findings
Chronic Productive Cough
> 3 Months for 2 Years
Increased Mucus Production
Dyspnea
Cyanosis
Wheezes
Complications
Right Side Heart Failure
Jugular Venous Distention (JVD)
Peripheral Edema
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2 mins
Chronic Bronchitis Interventions
Tripod Position
Humidified Oxygen
Pursed Lip Breathing
Increase Fluid Intake
ABGs
Early Detection of Exacerbation
Considerations
Lowest O2 Therapy
Assisted Ventilation
Increased Infection Risk
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2 mins
Pneumonia Assessment
Risk Factors
Older Adult
Immunocompromised
Long Term Care
Assessment
Shortness of Breath (SOB)
Hypoxemia
Cough and Sputum Production
Wheezing or Crackles
Fever
Pleuritic Pain
Diagnosis
Chest X-ray
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2 mins
Pneumonia Intervention
Interventions
Humidified Oxygen
Deep Breathing Exercises
Position of Comfort
Increase Fluid Intake
Manage Fever
Medications
Antibiotics
Mucolytics
Expectorants
Considerations
Pneumococcal Vaccine
Sepsis
Acute Respiratory Failure (ARF)
Prevention Education
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2 mins
Tuberculosis Assessment
Etiology
Airborne Droplet
Assessment
3 Week Productive Cough
Night Sweats
Chest Pain
Fever
Weight Loss
Fatigue
Diagnosis
Chest X-Ray
Blood Tests
Mantoux Skin Test
3 Positive Sputum Tests
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1 min
Tuberculosis Intervention
Hospital Care
Airborne Isolation
Drug Therapy
Combination Drug Therapy (RIPE)
6-12 Months
Considerations
DOT
BCG Vaccination
Medication Education
3 Negative Sputum Specimens
Infection Control
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2 mins
Lung Cancer Assessment
2nd Most Common Cancer
Assessment
Chronic Cough
Hoarseness
Abnormal Breath Sounds
Hemoptysis
Chest Pain
Anorexia or Weight Loss
Considerations
Symptoms Appear Late in Disease
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2 mins
Cardiac Tamponade
Mechanism
Fluid in the Pericardial Sac
Pericarditis
Decreased Cardiac Output
Signs/Symptoms
Beck's Triad
Hypotension
Jugular Venous Distention (JVD)
Distant Heart Sounds
Pulsus Paradoxus
Electrical Alternans
Treatment
Pericardiocentesis
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1 min
Flail Chest
Cause/Mechanism
Trauma
Assessment
Shallow Respirations
Chest Pain
Paradoxical Chest Movement
Interventions
Mechanical Ventilation
Analgesics
Intercostal Nerve Blocks
Considerations
Surgical Rib Fixation
Monitor Pulmonary Contusion
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2 mins
Chest Tubes: Management and Care
Confirm suction order
Assessment
Crepitus
Kinking
Shortness of Breath (SOB)
Infection
Excessive bubbling
Quick Interventions
If tube dislodges from patient, use petroleum gauze taped 3 ways
If drainage system is damaged, place disconnected drainage tube in sterile water
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1 min
Emphysema
Mechanism
Hyperinflation and Loss of Elasticity
Assessment
Pursed Lip Breathing
Barrel Chest
Dyspnea on Exertion
Clubbing
Depression and Anxiety
Thin Appearance
Nursing Considerations
CO2 Retention
Low Concentration of O2
High Fowler's Position
High Calorie, High Protein Diet
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2 mins
Pulmonary Embolism Causes
Causes
FAT BAT Mnemonic
Fat
Air
Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT)
Bacteria
Amniotic Fluid
Tumor
Risk Factors
Hypercoagulable
Central Venous Lines
Immobilized
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1 min
Pulmonary Embolism Assessment
Assessment
Shortness of Breath (SOB)
Pleuritic Chest Pain
Tachypnea
Hemoptysis
Hypoxemia
Considerations
Sudden Death
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52 secs
Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) Assessment
Cause
Damaged Alveolar-Capillary Membrane
Assessment
Restlessness
Dyspnea
Refractory Hypoxemia
Decreased PaO2
Diffuse Pulmonary Infiltrates
Atelectasis
Pulmonary Hypertension
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2 mins
Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) Interventions
Interventions
Closely Monitor Patient
ABG's (Arterial Blood Gases)
Oxygen
Assess for O2 Toxicity
Mechanical Ventilation
PEEP
Assess for Pneumothorax
Permissive Hypercapnia
Considerations
High Mortality Rate
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2 mins

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