Ace Your Medical-Surgical Nursing, 10th Ed., Lewis, Dirksen, Heitkemper & Bucher Classes and Exams with Picmonic: #1 Visual Mnemonic Study Tool for Registered Nurse (RN) Students

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Medical-Surgical Nursing, 10th Ed., Lewis, Dirksen, Heitkemper & Bucher | Registered Nurse (RN) School Study Aid


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38 - Assessment of Gastrointestinal System
14 Picmonics to Learn | 21 mins

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Oral Cavity
Characteristics
Mouth
Mechanical Digestion
Salivary Amylase Begins Carbohydrate Breakdown
Lingual Lipase Begins Lipid Breakdown
Esophagus
Bolus
Peristalsis
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1 min
Small Intestine Absorption
Characteristics
Carbohydrates Undergo Active Transport
Amino Acids Undergo Active Transport
Small Lipids Undergo Passive Diffusion
Epithelial Cells
Intestinal Capillaries
Hepatic Portal Transports Nutrients
Liver
Large Lipids Transported as Chylomicrons
Lacteals Transport Chylomicrons
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2 mins
GI Absorption
Stomach
Alcohol
Duodenum
Iron
Jejunum
Folate
Terminal Ileum
Vitamin B12
Bile Resorption
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1 min
Stomach Digestion
Characteristics
Chief Cells Secrete Pepsinogen
Pepsinogen Turned to Pepsin By H+
Protein Breakdown Begins
Mucous Cells Secrete Mucus and Bicarbonate
G Cells Secrete Gastrin
Gastrin Stimulates Parietal Cell HCl Release
Parietal Cells Secrete Intrinsic Factor
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2 mins
Small Intestine Digestion
Brush border enzymes
Pancreatic Enzymes are secreted via a Duct
Pancreas secretes bicarbonate
Brush Border activates Pancreatic Trypsin
Trypsin activates Chymotrypsin
Trypsin and Chymotrypsin digest Proteins
Gallbladder Releases Bile
Pancreatic Lipase breaks down Lipids
Goblet cells secrete mucus
Pancreatic Amylase breaks down Carbohydrates
Pancreatic Nucleases breakdown DNA/RNA
Digestion occurs in the Duodenum
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2 mins
Large Intestine
Characteristics
Colon
Electrolyte Reabsorption
Water Reabsorption
Microflora Produce Vitamins
Rectum Stores Feces
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1 min
NSAIDs
Indications
Anti-inflammatory
Analgesic
Fever
Closure of PDA
Mechanism of Action
Reversible Inhibition of COX-1 and COX-2
Block Prostaglandin Synthesis
Side Effects
Interstitial Nephritis
Gastric Ulcer
Renal Ischemia
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1 min
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
Procedure
Internal Body Images
Detects Variations of Soft Tissues
Considerations
No Metal Objects
No Pacemakers
Contrast is Non-Iodine
Safe During Pregnancy
Long Procedure
Antianxiety Medications
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2 mins
Liver Biopsy Procedure
Indications
Diagnosis of Liver Disease
Types of Liver Biopsy
Incisional (Open Method)
Needle Biopsy (Closed Method)
Considerations
Coagulation Status
Type and Crossmatch Blood
Right-Side Lying
Post-Biopsy Monitoring
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2 mins
Pancreatin, Pancrelipase (Pancreatic Enzymes)
Mechanism
Pancreatic Enzymes
Indications
Cystic Fibrosis
Pancreatic Insufficiency
Side Effects
GI Distress
Considerations
Inactivated by Gastric Acid
24 Hour Fat Excretion
Take with Every Meal and Snack
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2 mins
Liver Enzyme Tests: AST and ALT
AST/ALT Ratio
AST: 10-30 U/L
ALT: 10-40 U/L
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1 min
Bilirubin Lab Value
0.2-1.2 mg/dL
Increased Bilirubin Causes Jaundice
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54 secs
Bleeding Time Lab Values
2-7 Minutes
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40 secs
Cholesterol Lab Values
LDL (Low Density Cholesterol)
< 100 mg/dL
HDL (High Density Cholesterol)
> 40 mg/dL Males
> 50 mg/dL Females
Total Cholesterol
< 200 mg/dL
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1 min

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