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Medical-Surgical Nursing, 10th Ed., Ignatavicius & Workman, 2020 | Registered Nurse (RN) School Study Aid
Partial Pressure of Oxygen in the Inspired Air (PIO2)
PIO2 Normally Approximated = 150 mmHg
Arterial Partial Pressure of CO2 (PaCO2)
Respiratory Quotient (R)
R Normally Approximated = 0.8
PAO2 = PIO2 - (PaCO2/R)
Partial pressure of alveolar oxygen (PAO2)
Partial Pressure of Arterial O2 (PaO2)
Normal 10 to 15 mmHg
Hypoxemia with an Abnormal A-a Gradient
Shunting (Low V/Q)
Dead space (high V/Q)
Mechanism of Action
Increase Dopamine and NE
Stimulant Side Effects
Hypersensitivity Type I
Previous Antigen Exposure
Presensitized Mast Cells
Lung Sounds - Crackles
Fine: Twisting Hair through Fingers
Collapsed Small Airways and Alveoli "Popping Open"
Lung Sounds - Wheezes
Air Moving through Narrowed Airways
Lung Sounds - Rhonchi
Trachea and Bronchi
Low Pitched Rumbling
Secretions or Bronchospasm
Lung Sounds - Pleural Friction Rub
Anterior Lateral Lung
Dry, Rubbing, or Squeaking
Rubbing a Balloon with Finger
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