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Nurse Practitioner (NP)
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Pathology
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Movement & Degenerative Disorders

Ace Your Pathology Classes and Exams with Picmonic: #1 Visual Mnemonic Study Tool for Nurse Practitioner (NP) Students

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Pathology | Nurse Practitioner (NP) School Study Aid

Movement & Degenerative Disorders
23 Picmonics to Learn | 53 mins
Causes of Dementia
Reversible Causes
Intoxication or Medications
Depression
Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus
Vitamin B12 Deficiency
Metabolic Conditions
Irreversible Causes
Lewy Body Dementia
Prion Disease
Pick's Disease
AIDS Dementia
Alzheimer's Disease
Multi-infarct (Vascular) Dementia
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2 mins
5 A's of Alzheimer's Disease
Agnosia
Anomia
Aphasia
Apraxia
Amnesia
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1 min
Alzheimer's Disease Assessment (Early Symptoms)
Risk Factors
Advanced Age
Early Signs and Symptoms
Poor Judgment and Decision-Making
Difficulty Having a Conversation
Inability to Manage a Budget
Losing Track of the Date or Season
Misplacing Things
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1 min
Alzheimer's Disease Assessment (Late Symptoms)
Late Signs and Symptoms
Memory Impairment
Wandering Behavior
Confabulation
Perseveration
Lack of Abstract Thinking
Severe Cognitive Decline
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1 min
Alzheimer's Disease Interventions
Diagnostic Tests
PET Scan and CT
Mini-Mental State Examination
Interventions
Drug Therapy
Safe Environment
Moderate Exercise
Behavioral Modification
Assistance with Functional Independence
Assistance and Support for Caregiver
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2 mins
Parkinson's Disease Assessment
Assessment
Decreased Dopamine
Older Adult
Cogwheel Rigidity
Bradykinesia
Shuffling Gait
Resting Tremor
Pill-Rolling
Mask-Like Face
Cognitive Decline
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2 mins
Parkinson's Disease Interventions
Medications
Levodopa/Carbidopa (Sinemet)
Entacapone (Comtan)
Selegiline (Eldepryl)
Amantadine (Symmetrel)
Bromocriptine (Parlodel)
Benztropine (Cogentin)
Considerations
Allow Extra Time
Ensure Patient Safety
Surgery As Last Resort
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2 mins
Parkinson's Drugs
Parkinsons Characteristics
Decreased Dopamine
Increased Acetylcholine
Drug Names
BALSA Acronym
Bromocriptine
Amantadine
Levodopa
Selegiline
Antimuscarinics
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2 mins
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)
Assessment
Progressive Muscle Weakness
Systemic Muscle Wasting
Fasciculations
Spasticity
Fatigue
Considerations
Riluzole (Rilutek)
Stretching
Little to No Cognitive Decline
Respiratory Support
Palliative Care
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2 mins
Huntington's Disease
Pathophysiology
Autosomal Dominant
Trinucleotide Repeat
CAG Repeats
Chromosome 4
Anticipation
Caudate
Decrease of ACh
Decrease of GABA
Signs and Symptoms
Chorea
Dementia
Depression
Glutamate Toxicity
Neuronal Death via NMDA Binding
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3 mins
Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus
Mechanism
Elderly
Idiopathic
Decreased Absorption of CSF
Ventricular Enlargement
Symptom Triad
Urinary Incontinence
Ataxia (Gait)
Cognitive Dysfunction
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2 mins
Lewy Body Dementia
Pathophysiology
Unknown Etiology
Decreased Acetylcholine
Alpha-synuclein Defect
Eosinophilic Cytoplasmic Inclusion
Signs and Symptoms
Visual Hallucinations
Progressive Dementia
Fluctuating Cognition
REM Sleep Behavior Disorder
Parkinsonism
Treatment
Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors
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3 mins
Cauda Equina Syndrome
Acute Loss of Lumbar Plexus Function
Surgical Emergency
Saddle Anesthesia
Causes
Inflammatory Disorders
Spinal Stenosis
Trauma
Lesions
Symptoms
Urinary and Fecal Incontinence
Sciatica
Diagnosis
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
Clinical
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1 min
Ballismus and Hemiballismus
Characteristics
Involuntary Flailing Movements
Worse with Activity; Improved with Rest
Basal Ganglia Dysfunction
Subthalamic Nucleus
Associations
Stroke
Diabetes
Infection
Neoplasm
Treatment
Antidopaminergic Medications
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2 mins
Essential Tremor
Characteristics
Most Common Tremor in Adults
Positive Family History
Clinical Findings
Bilateral Upper Extremities
Worse with Physical and Psychological Stress
Better with Rest and Alcohol
Management
Beta Blockers
Primidone
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1 min
Intention Tremor
More Apparent With Goal-Directed Movements Such as Using Eating Utensils
High-Amplitude, Low-Frequency
More Apparent as Extremity Approaches Target
Overshooting and Undershooting
Pathogenesis
Ipsilateral Cerebellar Damage
Diagnosis
Neurologic Exam
MRI
Treatment
Physical or Occupational Therapy
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3 mins
Trigeminal Neuralgia (Tic Douloureux)
CN V (Trigeminal Nerve)
Characteristics
Stabbing Unilateral Facial Pain
Trigger Zones
Psychological Disturbances
Bizarre Facial Movements
More Common in Women
Classification
Classical
Secondary
Idiopathic
DIAGNOSIS
Diagnosis by Clinical Impression
MRI
Treatment
Carbamazepine
Surgery As Last Resort
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4 mins
Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD)
Pathophysiology
Misfolded Prion Protein
Spongiform Encephalopathy
Subtypes
Sporadic Type
Familial Type
Variant Type
Iatrogenic Type
Clinical Manifestations
Rapidly Progressive
Dementia
Ataxia
Myoclonus
Diagnosis
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
Increased Levels of 14-3-3 Protein
Periodic Sharp Waves On EEG
Management
Supportive Care
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4 mins
Charcot Marie Tooth Disease
Pathophysiology
Hereditary Motor Sensory Neuropathy
Autosomal Dominant
PMP22 Duplication
Schwann Cell Dysfunction
Clinical Features
Distal Muscle Weakness
Foot Drop
Calf Muscle Atrophy
Scoliosis
Hammertoes
Pes Cavus
Diagnosis
Onion-skin Appearance on Nerve Biopsy
Electrodiagnostic Studies
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5 mins
Chorea and Athetosis
Characteristics
Sudden Jerky Movements
Athetosis
Snake-like, Writhing Movements
Basal Ganglia Lesions
Associations
Huntington's Disease
Acute Rheumatic Fever
Management
Treat Underlying Disorder
Tetrabenazine
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1 min
MELAS
Characteristics
Mitochondrial Disease
Mnemonic
Mitochondrial Encephalomyopathy
Lactic Acidosis
Stroke-like Episodes
Considerations
Muscle Weakness
Seizures
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1 min
Cranial Nerve Pathologies
Cranial Nerve Pathologies
Horner Syndrome
Trigeminal Neuralgia
Bell's Palsy
Brain or Brainstem Lesion
Microvascular Cranial Nerve Palsy
Glossopharyngeal Neuralgia
Multiple Sclerosis
Arnold Chiari Malformation
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)
Guillain Barre’ Syndrome
Parkinson's Disease
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3 mins
Spinal Cord Injuries
Complications
Spinal Shock
Respiratory Complications
Autonomic Dysreflexia (Hyperreflexia)
Orthostatic Hypotension
Deep Vein Thrombosis
Thermal Regulation
Circulatory Problems
Spasticity
Dermal Complications
Genitourinary Complications
Spinal Cord Injury Syndromes
Anterior Cord Syndrome
Central Cord Syndrome
Brown-Sequard’s Syndrome
Conus Medullaris Syndrome
Cauda Equina Syndrome
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4 mins

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