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Medicine (MD/DO)
First Aid
First Aid for the USMLE Step 1 (2023)
Page 668 -
Endometrial Carcinoma

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Endometrial Carcinoma

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Endometrial Carcinoma

Endometrium Car-gnome
Most Common Genital Tract Cancer
# 1 Foam-finger

Endometrial cancer is the number one cancer in the genital tract of females.

Located at the Endometrium

Endometrial cancer starts at the endometrium, the lining of the uterus. Endometrial cancer is sometimes known as uterine cancer.

The endometrium is composed of a single layer of simple columnar epithelium. Endometrial cancer develops when the epithelial cells grow abnormally.

Irregular Vaginal Bleeding
Vaginal Violet

Endometrial cancer presents as irregular vaginal bleeding. For example, any bleeding in postmenopausal women is considered abnormal.

Type 1 is Endometrial Carcinoma
(1) Wand Endometrium car-gnome

Type 1 is known as endometrial carcinoma because the histology involves tumors that look like normal endometrial glands. However, they are arranged abnormally.

Unopposed Estrogen Stimulation
Unopposed Easter-egg

Unopposed estrogen increases the risk that a person will develop type 1 endometrial cancer.


Obesity is an example where unopposed estrogen can develop into endometrial cancer.

Loss of Tumor Suppressor PTEN
Loss of Tumor-suppressing-cage

Loss of tumor suppressor PTEN will result in unopposed estrogen, which could lead to the development of endometrial carcinoma.

Loss of Mismatch Repair
Broken Mismatched Repair-man

Loss of mismatch repair proteins can cause unopposed estrogen, which can lead to type 1 endometrial carcinoma.

Type 2 is Serous Carcinoma
(2) Tutu Seltzer Car-gnome

Type 2 carcinoma is known as serous carcinoma and is the lesser common type of endometrial carcinoma.

Aggressive Malignant-man

Serous endometrial carcinoma is an aggressive type of cancer.

Psammoma Bodies

Histology includes psammoma bodies.

TVUS/Endometrial Biopsy
Doctor with Biopsy-needle and Ultrasound-machine.

Transvaginal ultrasound and endometrial biopsy are used for diagnosis. A transvaginal ultrasound is used to analyze the endometrium's thickness and texture. An endometrial biopsy is used to examine the uterine cells.

Total Hysterectomy/with Bilateral Salpingo-Oophorectomy
Uterus, Bilateral Ovary, and Fallopian Tube Removed by Scalpel

Removal of the uterus, both of the ovaries, and the fallopian tubes is the treatment recommended for endometrial cancer.


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