Endometrial cancer is the number one cancer in the genital tract of females.
Endometrial cancer starts at the endometrium, the lining of the uterus. Endometrial cancer is sometimes known as uterine cancer.
The endometrium is composed of a single layer of simple columnar epithelium. Endometrial cancer develops when the epithelial cells grow abnormally.
Endometrial cancer presents as irregular vaginal bleeding. For example, any bleeding in postmenopausal women is considered abnormal.
Type 1 is known as endometrial carcinoma because the histology involves tumors that look like normal endometrial glands. However, they are arranged abnormally.
Unopposed estrogen increases the risk that a person will develop type 1 endometrial cancer.
Obesity is an example where unopposed estrogen can develop into endometrial cancer.
Loss of tumor suppressor PTEN will result in unopposed estrogen, which could lead to the development of endometrial carcinoma.
Loss of mismatch repair proteins can cause unopposed estrogen, which can lead to type 1 endometrial carcinoma.
Type 2 carcinoma is known as serous carcinoma and is the lesser common type of endometrial carcinoma.
Serous endometrial carcinoma is an aggressive type of cancer.
Histology includes psammoma bodies.
Transvaginal ultrasound and endometrial biopsy are used for diagnosis. A transvaginal ultrasound is used to analyze the endometrium's thickness and texture. An endometrial biopsy is used to examine the uterine cells.
Removal of the uterus, both of the ovaries, and the fallopian tubes is the treatment recommended for endometrial cancer.
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